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ROYAL  ONTARIO  MUSEUM 
ART  AND  ARCHAEOLOGY 
OCCASIONAL  PAPER  26 


• 


TUYLER  YOUNG,  JR 
IUIS  D.  LEVINE 


Excavations  of  the 
Godin  Project: 
Second  Progress  Report 


ROYALONTARIO  MUSEUM  LIBRARIES 


31761  04313  4071 


Occasional  Paper  26 

ROYAL  ONTARIO  MUSEUM 
ART  AND  ARCHAEOLOGY 


T 
LOUIS 


oSTle™'  JR "  Excavations  of  the 

Go  din  Project: 
Second  Progress  Report 


With  appendices  by 

Carol  Hamlin  and  Isobel  Heathcote 


ROYAL  ONTARIO  MUSEUM 

Art  and  Archaeology  Editorial  Board 

R.  L.  Peterson,  Chairman 

D.  M.  Pendergast,  Editor 

V.  Gervers-Molnar,  Associate  Editor 

T.  Cuyler  Young,  Jr.,  Associate  Editor 


t.  cuyler  young,  jr.,  is  Curator  of  the  West  Asian  Department  of  the  Royal 
Ontario  Museum,  and  Director  of  the  Godin  Project. 

louis  d.  levine  is  Assistant  Curator  in  the  West  Asian  Department  of  the 
Royal  Ontario  Museum,  and  Director  of  the  excavations  at  Seh  Gabi. 


price:      $4.50 

Publication  date:  15  March  1974 

©The  Royal  Ontario  Museum,  1974 

ISBN  0-88854-019-1 

Printed  at  Hunter  Rose 


To 

Sarra,  Katherine,  Bridget, 
Samuel  and  Timothy 

The  frequently  fatherless  five 


Contents 

List  of  Figures,  vii 
List  of  Plates,  ix 
Abbreviations,  xi 
Preface,  xiii 

Seh  Gabi 

Introduction,  1 

The  Dalma  Period,  2 
Architecture,  2 
Pottery,  2 
Small  finds,  4 

The  Seh  Gabi  Period,  4 
Architecture,  4 
Pottery,  6 
Small  finds,  8 
Burials,  10 

Mound  B  Stratigraphy,  1 0 

The  Godin  VII  and  VI  Periods,  1 2 
Architecture,  12 
Pottery,  12 
Small  finds,  1  3 
Burials,  13 

Mounds  A,  E  and  F  Stratigraphy,  14 

The  Stratigraphy  of  Seh  Gahi,  14 

Godin 

Introduction,  16 

Periods  VII  to  IV,  17 
Period  VII,  17 
Period  VI,  17 
Period  V,  17 
Period  IV,  17 

Period  III,  1  8 
Stratification,  1  8 
Architecture,  20 
Pottery  and  small  finds,  29 

Period  II,  29 
Stratification,  29 
Architecture,  30 
Pottery  and  small  finds,  35 


Conclusions,  37 

Appendix  A — The  Seh  Gabi  Chipped  Stone,  Carol  Hamlin,  39 

Appendix  B — The  Seh  Gabi  Osteological  Material,  Isobel  Heathcote,  40 

Footnotes,  42 

References,  44 

Catalogue  of  Published  Objects,  45 

Figures,  55 

Plates,  139 


Figures 


1  Central  and  North  Western  Iran,  56 

2  Contour  map  of  Seh  Gabi  and  environs,  57 

3  Seh  Gabi,  South  Section,  G20  and  G21 ,  58 

4  Seh  Gabi,  Mound  B,  Level  Al,  architecture,  59 

5  Seh  Gabi,  Mound  B,  Level  A2,  architecture,  60 

6  Seh  Gabi,  Mound  B,  Level  B,  architecture,  61 

7  Seh  Gabi,  Mound  B,  Level  C,  architecture,  62 

8  Seh  Gabi,  Mound  B,  Level  C,  detail  of  wall  N,  63 

9  Seh  Gabi,  Dalma  painted  wares,  64 

10  Seh  Gabi,  Dalma  plain  and  surface  manipulated  wares,  66 

1 1  Seh  Gabi,  Seh  Gabi  painted  wares,  68 

12  Seh  Gabi,  Seh  Gabi  plain  wares,  70 

13  Seh  Gabi,  Godin  VII  and  VI  plain  wares,  72 

14  Seh  Gabi,  Godin  VI  painted  wares,  74 

15  Seh  Gabi,  small  finds,  76 

16  Seh  Gabi,  burials,  78 

17  Contour  map  of  Godin  Tepe,  80 

18  Godin,  South  Section,  Operations  AA2,  A2,  B2  and  C2:  the 
the  Master  Section  of  the  Deep  Sounding,  81 

1 9  Godin,  Period  IV  pottery  and  small  finds,  84 

20  Godin,  Level  III:5D  structures,  86 

21  Godin,  Level  IIL4A  structures,  87 

22  Godin,  Level  IIL2C  structures,  88 

23  Godin,  Level  IIL2A  structures,  89 

24  Godin,  Period  III  structures,  Operations  AA9  and  AA10,  91 

25  Godin,  Period  III  pottery,  92 

26  Godin,  Period  III  pottery,  94 

27  Godin,  Period  III  pottery,  96 

28  Godin,  Period  III  painted  pottery,  98 

29  Godin.  Period  III  painted  pottery,  100 


30  Godin,  Period  III  painted  pottery,  102 

31  Godin,  Period  III  painted  pottery,  104 

32  Godin,  Period  III  painted  pottery,  106 

33  Godin,  Period  III  pottery  and  small  finds,  108 

34  Godin,  Period  III  small  finds,  1 10 

35  Godin,  Period  III  small  finds,  112 

36  Godin,  Period  III  small  finds,  114 

37  Godin,  Period  II  structure:  the  fortified  manor  house,  116 

38  Godin,  East-West  Section  across  Period  II  structure,  117 

39  Godin,  North-South  Section  across  Period  II  structure,  119 

40  Godin,  schematic  plans  of  Stages  1 ,  2  and  3  in  the  history 
of  the  Period  II  structure,  120 

41  Godin,  schematic  plans  of  Stages  4  and  5  in  the  history 
of  the  Period  II  structure,  121 

42  Godin,  detail  plan  of  stairway  and  ramp  area,  Period  II  structure,  122 

43  Godin,  Period  II  structures,  Operation  AA9,  123 

44  Godin,  Period  II  pottery,  124 

45  Godin,  Period  II  pottery,  126 

46  Godin,  Period  II  pottery,  128 

47  Godin,  Period  II  pottery,  130 

48  Godin,  Period  II  pottery,  132 

49  Godin,  Period  II  pottery,  134 

50  Godin,  Period  II  small  finds,  136 

51  Key  to  symbols,  architectural  plans,  138 

52  Key  to  symbols,  archaeological  sections,  138 


Plates 


I     Seh  Gabi,  Mound  B,  about  one  month  after  the  start  of 
excavations.  Looking  west,  141 

II     Seh  Gabi,  Mounds  A  and  E  as  viewed  from  Mound  B 
at  the  start  of  excavations,  142 

III  Niche  and  quern  in  the  main  room,  Level  A,  Mound  B. 

Looking  north,  143 

IV  Plastered  feature  west  of  wall  D  in  HI 9,  Level  A 

Mound  B,  143 

V     Eastern  end  of  the  main  room,  Level  A,  Mound  B,  showing 
the  plastered  walls  and  the  sling  pellets  on  the  floor,  144 

VI     Sling  pellets  and  red  deer  antlers  in  the  open  area  to  the 
east  of  the  building,  Level  A,  Mound  B,  144 

VII     Level  C,  Mound  B,  general  view.  The  curtain  wall  in  the 
upper  right  is  wall  N,  145 

VIII     Close  up  of  the  corrugated  surface  of  wall  N, 
Mound  B,  Level  C,  145 

IX     Mound  B,  G  20,  Burial  5,  covered,  146 

X     Mound  B,  G  20,  Burial  5,  uncovered,  146 

XI     The  Godin  Citadel  Mound  viewed  from  the  north 
at  the  close  of  1971  field  season,  147 

XII     Close-up  of  the  torso  of  Burial  1 ,  Operation  A A9  with 
arrow  imbedded  in  the  spine,  148 

XIII  Level  III:2C,  entrance  corridor,  room  1,  with  stone  threshold 

and  mud  brick  benches,  149 

XIV  Level  IIL2C,  the  hearth  and  bench  structure  in  room  2 

viewed  from  above,  150 

XV     Level  III: 2 A,  clay  grain  storage  bins  in  room  24,  151 

XVI      Level  III:4A,  view  southeast  down  "Avenue  Road,"  152 

XVII      Level  IIL4A,  view  north  up  the  alleyways  leading  to  room  5 
and  courtyard  10,  153 

XVIII      Level  III  :4A,  view  north  across  area  7,  rooms  8  and  9, 
alleyway  15,  courtyard  10  and  the  alleyway  east  of 
room  8,  1  53 

XIX     Level  III  :4A,  skeleton  of  the  body  crushed  on  the  stone 
pavement  in  room  23,  154 


XX     Level  III: 4 A,  rectangular  bin  on  the  mud  brick  counter 
in  room  29,  155 

XXI     Level  III: 4 A,  general  view  of  room  32  showing  the  elaborate 
hearth  against  the  north  wall,  156 

XXII     Level  IIL5D,  view  from  the  northeast  toward 
the  doorway  of  room,  8,  157 

XXIII  Period  II,  east  face  of  tower  1 3  cleared  back  to  the  remaining 

fragment  of  the  original  fortification  wall  running  between 
towers  13  and  5,  157 

XXIV  Period  II,  view  of  the  fortification  wall  and  towers  4  and  1 7 

from  the  river  bed,  158 

XXV     Period  II,  west  face  of  tower  17  showing  curving  socle,  159 

XXVI     Period  II,  buttress  of  west  side  of  tower  17  showing 

reconstruction  at  a  slightly  different  alignment  from 
the  original  structure,  160 

XXVII     Period  II,  arrow  slot  in  the  north  fortification  wall.  NB:  two 
lines  of  replastering  indicating  the  depth  to  which  debris 
had  been  allowed  to  accumulate  against  the  wall  face,  161 

XXVIII     Period  II,  doorway  into  room  21  with  lintel  intact,  162 

XXIX     Period  II,  view  of  the  south  bank  of  magazines  (Stage  3 ) 
from  the  Citadel  mound  to  the  south,  1 63 

XXX     Period  II,  view  looking  northwest  across  the  massive 
southeastern  watch  towers,  rooms  36  and  37,  164 

XXXI     Period  II,  stairway  in  area  43.  All  but  a  fragment  of  the 
stairway  (upper  left)  has  been  cleaned  down  to  the 
original  first  plaster  surface,  165 

XXXII     Period  II,  "squatter  occupation,"  flimsy  stone  foundation 
of  wall  in  area  45,  166 

XXXIII     Period  II,  "squatter  occupation,"  hearth  in  area  44,  167 


Abbreviations 


AJA 

American  Journal  of  Archaeology. 

Bur. 

Burial. 

D. 

Diameter. 

Disc. 

Discarded. 

Ht. 

Height. 

1LN 

Illustrated  London  News. 

JNES 

Journal  of  Near  Eastern  Studies. 

L. 

Length. 

N.A. 

North  America. 

Op. 

Operation. 

SAOC 

Studies  in  Ancient  Oriental  Civilizations 

St. 

Stratum. 

w. 

Width. 

NB :   Pottery  descriptions  in  the  catalogues  are  given  in  the  following  order: 
Ware.  Ground  colour.  Paint  colour  (when  applicable).  Finish. 


Preface 


Since  the  first  progress  report  on  the  Godin  excavations  was  written  we 
have  completed  two  more  field  seasons  at  Godin  Tepe  and  a  first  season 
at  the  nearby  site  of  Seh  Gabi.1  So  it  is  that  we  can  no  longer  speak  of 
simply  the  Godin  Excavations,  but  find  it  necessary  to  use  the  term  Godin 
Project  to  describe  the  current  archaeological  research  of  the  ROM  in  Iran. 

As  in  our  earlier  report  we  here  keep  our  text  to  the  absolute  minimum 
necessary  to  describe  in  skeleton  fashion  the  recent  excavations.  This  gives 
us  more  space  for  illustration,  which,  at  this  stage  in  our  research,  our 
colleagues  need  more  than  our  still  half-baked  thoughts.  Once  again  it  is 
our  hope  that  comments  and  criticism  on  these  data  by  others  will  be 
forthcoming  so  that  eventually  we  shall  be  able  to  produce  a  better  final 
report  on  our  work. 

Naturally,  much  more  material  has  been  left  out  of  this  report  than  out 
of  the  last  one.  We  have  done  a  great  deal  more  digging  than  at  the  time 
the  last  report  went  to  press.  Thus  we  have  a  great  deal  more  data  in  hand. 
We  hope,  however,  that  judicious  selection  has  enabled  us  to  give  the 
reader  a  fairly  complete  view  of  at  least  the  basic  types  and  varieties  of 
evidence  recovered.  In  the  first  progress  report  we  were  mainly  worried 
about  sins  of  commission;  here  we  are  more  concerned  about  sins  of  omis- 
sion. Either  way  it  seems  necessary  to  sin  if  we  are  going  to  publish  these 
kinds  of  reports  at  all. 

Once  again  it  is  a  pleasure  to  thank  all  who  have  helped  us  in  our 
work.  H.  E.  M.  Pahlbod,  Minister  of  Art  and  Culture  of  the  Imperial 
Government  of  Iran;  Dr.  Firuz  Bagherzadeh,  Advisor  to  the  Minister;  Mr. 
A.  Pourmand,  General  Director  of  the  Archaeological  Service  of  Iran;  Mr. 
M.  Khorammabadi,  Assistant  Director  and  Dr.  Tayyib-Naimi,  Director  of 
Excavations  of  the  Archaeological  Service  have  all  taken  a  kind  official 
and  personal  interest  in  the  Godin  Project. 

Financial  support  for  the  excavations  has  come  from  several  sources: 
the  Royal  Ontario  Museum;  the  Harvie  Foundation,  Calgary;  the  Baby- 
lonian Collection  of  Yale  University;  the  Ford  Foundation;  and  the  Can- 
ada Council. 

As  the  Project  has  grown  in  size,  so  has  the  staff.  The  1969  staff  was: 
Louis  D.  Levinc,  Assistant  Director;  Christopher  Hamlin,  Carol  Hamlin, 
Irene  Winter,  Curtiss  Hoffman,  William  Sumner  and  Harvey  Weiss,  Site 
Supervisors;  Claus  Breede,  Architect;  Murray  Hadaway,  Technician; 
Michael  Wills,  Assistant  Technician;  and  Mrs.  William  Sumner,  Registrar. 
In  1971  the  Seh  Gabi  excavation  staff  was:  Carol  Hamlin,  Assistant  Di- 
rector; Mary  MacDonald,  site  supervisor;  and  Dorothy  Levine,  Registrar. 
The  Godin  excavation  staff  was:  Christopher  Hamlin,  Assistant  Director: 
Irene  Winter,  Stuart  Brown,  Elizabeth  Kidd,  Vince  Piggott,  Harvey  Weiss 
and  Stuart  Swinney,  site  supervisors;  and  Prudence  Young,  Registrar.  Pro- 
ject staff,  shared  by  both  excavations,  included  Claus  Breede,  Architect; 
Romavne  Dawncy,  Artist;  and  Peter  Mitchell,  Technician.  All  of  these 
people   contributed   much.   Particular  thanks,   however,  are  due  to  Carol 


and  Christopher  Hamlin,  Irene  Winter  and  Harvey  Weiss  who  have  all 
spent  three  seasons  in  the  field  with  us  and,  by  virtue  of  their  investment 
of  affection  and  energy  in  the  Project,  are  practically  joint  authors  of  this 
report. 

As  in  the  past,  officials  of  the  Canadian  Embassy  in  Tehran  have 
assisted  the  Godin  Project  in  many  ways.  Not  only  have  our  formal  con- 
tacts with  embassy  personnel  been  useful  and  pleasant,  but  also  the  un- 
official kindnesses  shown  to  members  of  the  Project  staff  by  these  public 
servants  have  done  much  to  make  our  visits  to  Iran  enjoyable. 

Several  people  have  contributed  directly  to  the  preparation  of  this  re- 
port. Mary  MacDonald  did  much  of  the  preliminary  analysis  of  the  Dalma 
pottery  from  Seh  Gabi.  Claus  Breede  has  prepared  the  sections,  architec- 
tural plans,  and  much  of  the  pottery  and  small  finds  for  publication.  In  the 
latter  work  he  was  assisted  by  Murray  Hadaway.  Mr.  Breede  also  acted  as 
field  photographer,  and  his  efforts  with  the  camera  have  been  ably  sup- 
ported on  the  home  front  by  Leighton  Warren,  Royal  Ontario  Museum 
photographer.  Terry  Wang  typed  the  manuscript  and,  we  are  sure,  would 
be  glad  if  the  authors  took  a  refresher  course  in  fourth  grade  penmanship. 

In  1971  our  wives  and  children  were  able  to  come  with  us  to  the  field. 
Did  they  see  much  more  of  us  than  in  the  years  when  they  had  to  stay  at 
home?  Whether  they  noticed  us  looking  or  not,  we  saw  a  lot  more  of  them, 
and  that  was  good. 

A  great  many  people  are  involved  in  the  successes  of  an  archaeological 
excavation.  Only  directors  make  mistakes.2 


T.  Cuyler  Young,  Jr. 
Louis  D.  Levine 


Toronto,  April  1973 


SEH  GABI 

Introduction 


Seh  Gabi  is  basically  a  late  neolithic  site  located  in  the  saddle  between  the 
Kangavar  and  Assadabad  valleys  in  central  western  Iran.  The  site  was 
chosen  for  excavation  as  part  of  the  Godin  Project  of  the  Royal  Ontario 
Museum  with  the  specific  objective  of  recovering  a  large,  well  documented 
sample  of  archaeological  material  whose  date  was  coincident  with  or  earlier 
than  the  earliest  periods  of  occupation  at  Godin  itself.  It  was  selected  after 
a  re-survey  of  the  Kangavar  valley  during  the  summer  of  1967,  under- 
taken at  the  close  of  the  second  season  of  excavations  at  Godin  as  a  sup- 
plement to  the  earlier  survey  of  the  valley  by  Young  in  1961.*  The  initial 
season  of  excavations  at  Seh  Gabi  was  carried  out  from  29  May  to  30 
August  1971. 

The  site  of  Seh  Gabi  is  some  six  kilometres  northeast  of  Godin  Tepe 
(Fig.  1).  Presently,  one  branch  of  the  Gamas  Ab  river  lies  about  half  a 
kilometre  to  the  east  of  the  site.  In  years  of  average  precipitation,  this 
branch  carries  water  only  in  the  spring.  The  mounds  themselves  bear  no 
local  name,  and  have  been  designated  Seh  Gabi  after  the  closest  village, 
which  lies  500  metres  to  the  southeast. 

The  configuration  of  Seh  Gabi  is  somewhat  different  from  most  sites 
in  the  Zagros.  Rather  than  a  single  mound  with  successive  strata  of  occu- 
pation and  decay,  the  site  consists  of  a  number  of  small  mounds  spread 
over  an  area  some  550  by  300  metres.  Thus,  one  of  the  problems  faced 
in  the  interpretation  of  the  site  is  the  determination  of  the  sequence  of 
occupation  among  the  various  mounds.  This  is  a  problem  to  which  we  shall 
return  later. 

For  ease  of  reference  we  have  labelled  the  mounds  with  the  letters  A-F 
(Fig.  2).  The  highest  of  these  is  Mound  B,  which  rises  about  7  metres 
above  the  present  valley  floor.  (PI.  I).  It  was  on  this  mound  that  the 
major  excavation  effort  centred  in  1971.  A,  E  and  F,  the  eastern  group  of 
mounds,  although  given  separate  letters,  may  have  originally  comprised  a 
continuous  settlement  that  has  since  assumed  its  present  configuration 
through  either  natural  or  human  processes  (  PI.  II).4  Small  trial  soundings 
were  conducted  in  these  three  mounds.  Finally,  small  soundings  were  also 
made  in  Mounds  C  and  D.  The  former  yielded  no  results  which  we  were 
able  to  interpret.  The  latter  produced  pottery  that  was  not  immediately 
identifiable,  but  which  may  fall  into  the  late  Achaemenid  or  Parthian 
periods. 

All  of  the  mounds  at  Seh  Gabi  showed  signs  of  having  been  cultivated, 
and,  with  the  exception  of  A,  had  been  used  by  the  local  villagers  as 
sources  for  fresh  soil  to  replenish  their  fields.  The  position  of  the  resultant 
cuts  is  marked  on  the  topographic  map  of  the  site. 

Four  periods  of  occupation  dating  to  the  late  neolithic  were  found  at 
Seh  Gabi.  The  periods  are  for  the  present  defined  on  the  basis  of  ceramic 
typology  and  stratigraphy  and  little  or  no  cultural  baggage  is  carried  by  the 
term  "period"  as  it  is  used  here.  Of  the  four,  two  were  defined  on  Mound 
B,  and  two  on  the  eastern  group  of  A,E,  and  F.  Since  the  chronological 

1 


relationships  among  these  are  as  yet  uncertain,  the  order  of  our  presenta- 
tion of  the  material  can  be  considered  somewhat  arbitrary. 


The  Dalma  Period  (Lower  Mound  B) 

The  material  deriving  from  the  lower  strata  on  Mound  B  belongs  to  the 
Dalma  ceramic  tradition  on  the  basis  of  comparisons  with  material  defined 
at  the  site  of  Dalma  Tepe,  Azerbaijan,  by  the  Hasanlu  Project  of  the  Uni- 
versity Museum,  Philadelphia.5  The  material  at  Seh  Gabi  comes  from  a 
trench  four  metres  wide  along  the  south  balk  of  Op.  G  21.r>  The  length 
of  this  trench  varied,  as  its  open  end  was  defined  by  one  of  the  peasant 
cuts  described  above,  but  it  was  never  more  than  four  metres  long.  At  this 
point  of  maximum  extent,  the  trench  was  approximately  level  with  the  sur- 
face of  the  peasant  cut.  A  two  metre  wide  trench  continued  along  this  same 
south  balk  for  the  rest  of  G  21  and  for  about  5  metres  into  G  22.  The 
G  22  portion  of  this  trench  was  taken  down  to  virgin  soil  in  arbitrary  20 
cm.  levels. 

ARCHITECTURE 

No  coherent  building  plan  was  defined  in  the  levels  dating  to  the  Dalma 
period.  A  number  of  walls  were  found,  all  of  them  of  brick  construction. 
In  general,  it  was  impossible  to  find  the  faces  of  these  walls,  although  they 
were  clearly  distinguishable  in  section.  One  point  worth  noting  was  the 
discovery  of  what  was  apparently  a  very  substantial  mass  of  brick  just  be- 
low the  surface  slump  in  the  western  end  of  the  two  metre  wide  test  trench 
in  G  21.  The  wall,  if  such  it  was,  was  at  least  two  metres  wide  for  as  far 
as  it  could  be  defined. 

POTTERY 

All  Dalma  period  pottery  is  hand  made.  The  overwhelming  majority  is 
chaff  tempered,  and  this  tempering  forms  an  unbroken  continuum  from 
finely  chopped  to  rather  coarse  inclusions.  It  is  impossible  to  separate  the 
pottery  into  coarse,  medium  and  fine  wares  in  meaningful  terms.  In  addi- 
tion to  the  chaff  tempered  wares,  a  very  small  percentage  of  pottery  with 
heavy  grit  temper  appears  in  rather  coarse,  thick  walled  vessels,  and  an 
even  smaller  percentage  of  fine  grit  or  sand  tempered  wares  is  also  present. 
All  of  the  wares  are  relatively  soft,  and  have  an  uneven  fracture.  The  fir- 
ing varies  from  thoroughly  oxidized  cores  to  cores  which  still  have  grey 
centres.  There  is  a  rough  correlation  between  thoroughness  of  firing  and 
thickness  of  the  vessel  wall,  with  the  thinner  walled  vessels  more  likely  to 
be  thoroughly  oxidized. 

The  pottery  can  be  divided  into  three  groups  on  the  basis  of  surface 
treatment. 

1.  Plain  wares:  The  majority  of  the  pottery  falls  into  this  class,  including 
all  of  the  grit  tempered  wares,  and  most  of  the  chaff  tempered  ones.  In 


this  category,  the  surface  is  a  single  colour,  with  any  variation  the  result 
of  unevenness  of  firing  or  of  subsequent  use  (e.g.,  smoke  blackening  of 
part  of  the  vessel  or  the  like.)  All  of  the  vessels  in  this  class  appear  to 
have  been  slipped,  although  no  microscopic  analysis  of  thin  sections  has 
been  made.  The  slipping  falls  into  two  categories:  single  slipped  and  double 
slipped.  The  latter  always  has  a  red  or  maroon  slip  applied  over  a  cream 
or  white  underslip.  The  single  slipped  surfaces  range  in  colour  from  a  dark 
purple  (almost  black  at  times)  through  a  red  to  a  buff.  On  at  least  one 
sherd,  the  entire  range  of  colour  variation  is  present,  perhaps  indicating 
that  the  final  colour  is  not  overly  significant  for  purposes  of  classification. 
Single  vessels  may  vary  in  terms  of  treatment.  Sometimes  both  of  the  sur- 
faces are  double  slipped,  sometimes  both  are  single  slipped,  and  sometimes 
one  surface  is  double  slipped  while  the  other  is  single  slipped.  In  the  last 
instance,  either  the  inside  or  the  outside  may  have  the  double  slip. 

The  surface  of  the  vessel  may  be  further  treated  by  smoothing  or  burn- 
ishing, or  it  may  be  left  matte.  Once  again,  the  treatment  of  the  inside  and 
outside  surfaces  of  a  single  vessel  may  vary,  and  most  combinations  are 
present. 

A  representative  sample  of  shapes  is  presented  in  Fig.  10.  Special  note 
should  be  paid,  however,  to  the  occurrence  of  the  funnel  (Fig.  12,  No.  12) 
in  the  Dalma  period  levels,  as  well  as  in  the  latter  Seh  Gabi  period.  This 
is  one  of  the  distinctive  shapes  recovered  at  Dalma  Tepe  itself. 

2.  Impressed,  punctate,  and  applique  wares  (surface  manipulated  wares): 
All  of  these  wares  are  chaff  tempered,  and  seem  to  occupy  the  middle  of 
the  spectrum  in  terms  of  tempering  coarseness.  The  surface  has  been 
treated  in  a  number  of  ways.  Fingertips,  fingernails,  a  pointed  object  (a 
sharp  stick  or  bone  awl),  a  comb,  a  blunt  ended  instrument  or  broken 
reed,  and  a  small  blade  have  been  used  to  impress  or  puncture  the  surface 
of  the  vessel.  At  times,  this  is  done  in  a  regular  manner,  with  rows  of 
finger  nail  impressions,  or  short  diagonal  or  horizontal  strokes  made  with 
a  small  blade  covering  the  surface;  at  other  times,  the  manipulation  is  ran- 
dom. With  most  of  the  impressed  and  punctate  wares,  the  manipulation  is 
dense,  and  covers  the  entire  exterior  of  the  vessel.  Applique  wares  are  rare, 
but  small  elongated  knobs  running  in  horizontal  bands  do  occur. 

Manipulation  is  generally  restricted  to  the  outside  surface  and  seems 
to  occur  only  on  pots.  The  inside  of  the  manipulated  vessels  is  slipped, 
either  single  or  double,  and  the  outside  of  the  vessel  also  appears  to  have 
been  slipped  before  being  manipulated.  A  trait  characteristic  of  the  manipu- 
lated vessels,  although  not  always  present,  is  a  pinched  rim  (Fig.  10,  No.  8). 

3.  Painted  wares:  The  painted  wares  are  basically  a  variety  of  the  plain 
wares,  one  or  both  surfaces  of  which  have  been  painted.  All  of  the  painted 
wares  are  chaff  tempered,  and  for  the  most  part  belong  to  the  finer  end 
of  the  temper  spectrum.  The  large  majority  of  these  wares  are  painted 
only  on  the  outer  surface  of  the  vessel,  with  painting  on  the  inner  surface 
or  on  both  uncommon.  The  paint  is  often  applied  thickly,  so  that  it  actu- 
ally stands  away  from  the  surface  of  the  vessel,  and  the  colour  of  the  paint 
ranges  from  deep  brown  to  red.  The  paint  can  be  applied  either  to  the 


untreated  surface  of  the  vessel,  or  it  can  be  applied  over  a  cream  slip.  The 
painting  covers  the  entire  surface  of  the  vessel,  and  never  seems  to  be  re- 
stricted to  one  area.  Most  of  the  vessels  are  monochrome,  but  a  small  per- 
centage are  bichrome.  The  colours  of  the  bichrome  are  red  and  dark  purple 
or  black  on  a  cream  slip.  On  some  of  the  sherds,  the  paint  is  fugitive,  but 
this  may  be  the  result  of  post-depositional  soil  conditions,  for  it  is  not 
usually  the  case.  The  motifs  are  all  geometric  or  "abstract".  There  are  as 
yet  no  naturalistic  motifs  attested  for  this  assemblage. 

The  surface  of  the  vessel  that  is  not  painted  is  slipped.  When  the  paint 
is  applied  directly  to  the  body  fabric,  the  other  surface  is  single  slipped. 
When  the  paint  appears  on  a  cream  ground,  the  other  surface  is  double 
slipped,  with  the  outer  slip  in  the  red  to  brown  range.  It  often  appears 
that  the  slip  and  the  paint  are  the  same  colour,  and  it  may  well  be  that 
the  same  pigment  was  used  for  both.  The  sherds  presented  in  Fig.  9  were 
selected  at  random,  and  do  not  reflect  relative  frequencies  of  motifs  or  the 
ratio  of  monochrome  to  bichrome  ware. 

SMALL  FINDS 

A  selection  of  small  finds  from  all  periods  at  Seh  Gabi  is  presented  in 
Fig.  15.  Spindle  whorls  of  type  14  and  16  are  present  in  the  Dalma  levels. 
No.  21,  a  chlorite  ring,  was  also  found  in  these  levels.7  Various  other 
ground  stone  objects,  quern  fragments,  flat  pallets,  and  perforated  stone 
weights  are  also  attested. 


The  Seh  Gabi  Period 

The  material  which  follows  the  Dalma  period  on  Mound  B,  and  which 
characterizes  the  occupation  of  the  mound  until  its  abandonment  is  called 
here  the  Seh  Gabi  period.  Since  it  is  the  first  time  that  a  complete  assem- 
blage of  this  type  has  been  published  it  is  difficult  to  find  a  more  satis- 
factory descriptive  term,  and  so  we  follow  a  hoary  if  somewhat  dubious 
Near  Eastern  archaeological  tradition  of  using  a  type-site  name.8 

An  extensive  area  of  the  Seh  Gabi  period  was  uncovered  on  the  top 
of  Mound  B.  All  of  squares  G  19  and  G  20,  most  of  H  19,  and  parts  of 
G  18,  F  17  and  G  21  were  opened.  All  of  these,  with  the  exception  of 
the  last  two,  had  material  connected  with  the  first  level,  Level  A.  In  addi- 
tion, a  5  x  5  metre  square  in  the  southeast  corner  of  G  20  was  taken 
down  below  Level  A.  In  it,  two  further  architectural  levels,  B  and  C.  pro- 
duced material  dating  to  the  Seh  Gabi  period. 

ARCHITECTURE 

Level  A  (Figs.  4  and  5):  The  architecture  of  Level  A  went  through  two 
phases,  labelled  Al  and  A2,  with  A2  the  earlier.  There  were  indications 
in  the  stratigraphic  record  that  still  another  level  of  settlement  followed 


Phase  A,  but  no  preserved  architectural  remains  were  encountered  in  this 
level. 

The  structures  of  Level  A2  were  only  partially  decipherable.  A  three 
room  house  in  square  G  19  was  the  best  preserved.  A  long  central  room 
was  the  focus  of  the  house.  It  measured  approximately  5x2  metres.  The 
walls,  made  of  bricks  52  x  17  x  7  cm.,  were  originally  at  least  three  metres 
high,  and  were  covered  with  white  plaster.  In  the  north  wall  was  a  niche 
and  in  front  of  this  a  semi-circular  bin.  To  the  east  of  the  bin  on  the  floor 
was  a  quern  (PI.  III). 

To  the  south  of  the  main  room  was  a  small,  partially  enclosed  porch 
area  with  a  scatter  of  stones  on  the  surface.  Along  the  west  wall  of  this 
was  a  bin-like  structure.  It  is  unlikely  that  this  area  was  roofed.  The  third 
part  of  the  structure  consisted  of  a  small  room  added  to  the  west  end  of 
the  principal  room  described  above.  Neither  the  small  enclosed  area  nor 
the  small  room  were  white  plastered.  Instead,  a  mud  plaster  was  used. 

To  the  west  of  the  building  was  an  open  area,  with  a  few  walls  and 
scatters  of  stone  that  did  not  form  any  coherent  plan.  The  stones  may  have 
originally  served  as  a  pen,  or  as  the  footing  of  a  wall  for  a  circular  struc- 
ture, if  wall  F  and  wall  D  in  G  18  are  to  be  linked.  The  evidence  for  this 
is  as  yet  inconclusive,  as  is  the  stratigraphic  position  of  these  stones.  There 
is  some  evidence  to  suggest  that  they  are  to  be  connected  with  the  second 
phase  of  Level  A.9  The  areas  to  the  south  of  the  porch  and  to  the  east  of 
the  building  seem  to  have  been  undeveloped  in  this  first  phase. 

To  the  north  of  the  house  a  number  of  walls  were  found,  but  we  were 
unable  to  make  sense  of  their  arrangement.  Of  note,  however,  was  a  curious 
feature  found  to  the  west  of  wall  D  in  square  H  19  (PI.  IV).  It  consisted 
of  an  irregularly  plastered  area,  70  x  50  cm.,  in  the  centre  of  which  was  a 
small  hole,  9  cm.  deep  and  1 1  cm.  in  diameter  at  the  top.  Ranged  around 
this  hole  were  four  plastered  feet,  which  were  built  as  an  integral  part  of 
the  feature.  The  function  of  this  feature,  as  well  as  its  location,  remain  in- 
explicable. The  area  to  the  north  of  the  building  seems  to  have  been  an 
open  one,  a  fact  hardly  consistent  with  the  elaborate  plastering  that  was 
evident  on  the  feature. 

The  later  phase  of  Level  A,  Al,  showed  few  changes  from  the  earlier. 
Most  noteworthy  was  the  addition  of  a  room  to  the  east  of  the  main  house. 
This  used  existing  walls  for  two  of  its  own,  and  faced  onto  the  open  area 
to  the  south.  There  was  no  direct  access  from  the  house  to  this  new  room, 
the  only  entry  being  the  one  from  the  courtyard. 

Also  dating  to  the  later  phase  of  A  was  a  hearth  built  up  against  the 
west  end  of  wall  J.  It  consisted  of  two  small  thin  walls  built  out  from 
either  side  of  the  pilaster  on  the  end  of  this  wall.  Associated  with  this 
hearth  were  large  quantities  of  bone,  pottery  and  stone. 

Two  clusters  of  material  dating  from  this  final  stage  of  occupation  are 
worth  nothing.  On  the  floor  in  the  eastern  end  of  the  principal  room  of  the 
main  house  a  scatter  of  clay  sling  pellets  and  a  large  quantity  of  wood 
were  found  (PI.  V).  A  similar  scatter  of  sling  pellets  together  with  a  frag- 


mentary  set  of  red  deer  antlers  were  found  in  the  open  area  to  the  east 
of  the  room  that  was  added  in  this  phase  (PL  VI). 

Level  B  (Fig.  6) :  The  architecture  of  this  level  was  excavated  in  only  one 
restricted  area  in  the  southeast  quadrant  of  Op.  G  20.  The  size  of  the 
exposure  prevented  recovery  of  any  meaningful  units.  The  only  points 
worth  noting  are  that  wall  H  is  a  low  curtain  wall,  and  that  in  the  corner 
formed  by  walls  F  and  G  a  large  storage  pot  was  found  in  situ  lying  on 
its  side.  In  this  pot  were  found  painted  Seh  Gabi  ware  sherds  (see  below), 
including  sherd  25,  Fig.  11. 

Level  C  (Figs.  7  and  8):  Architecture  from  Level  C  was  encountered  in 
the  southeast  quadrant  of  G  20,  and  in  the  southwest  quadrant  of  G  21. 
Once  again,  the  small  area  opened  prevented  clear  understanding  of 
the  walls  found.  The  surface  connected  with  the  walls  in  G  20  appeared 
to  be  an  exterior  one.  It  was  littered  with  stones,  bone  and  pottery.  Half 
of  a  bovine  mandible  was  found  on  the  surface,  as  well  as  a  stone  mortar 
(PI.  VII).  Of  particular  note  was  wall  N  (Fig.  8  and  PL  VIII).  The  north 
face  of  this  small  curtain  wall  had  a  corrugated  effect,  with  the  raised 
portions  covered  with  a  white  powdery  substance.  This  may  be  the  result 
of  wooden  sticks  having  been  set  against  the  face  of  the  wall,  and  then  the 
entire  surface  covered  with  something,  perhaps  a  reed  mat  or  a  rug,  which 
produced  the  white  powder.  The  decay  of  the  wood  would  account  for  the 
absence  of  the  white  in  the  corrugations.  At  one  point  on  the  wall,  a  rather, 
wide  band  of  white  seemed  to  have  a  circle  that  was  not  covered  with  the 
powder.  The  reason  for  this  is  unclear. 

POTTERY 

The  following  remarks  on  the  pottery  of  the  Seh  Gabi  period  are  of  a 
preliminary  nature.  No  attempt  has  been  made  to  be  definitive,  and  the 
types  described  are  only  those  that  occur  with  some  frequency.  The  as- 
semblage contains  many  new  features  not  present  in  the  earlier  Dalma 
period  pottery,  as  well  as  some  that  might  be  considered  derivative  from 
that  earlier  assemblage. 

Once  again,  surface  treatment  seems  to  be  the  most  convenient  way 
of  grouping  the  wares,  although  it  does  not  work  as  well  as  it  did  with 
the  Dalma  material.  There  is  considerable  range  in  fabric  in  this  period, 
but  it  seems  to  have  some  correlation  with  surface  treatment,  and  there- 
fore will  be  discussed  in  terms  of  varieties  so  defined. 

1.  Plain  wares  (Fig.  12) :  There  are  a  number  of  types  of  plain  ware  pres- 
ent in  this  assemblage.  All  but  one  are  hand-made. 

a.  Red  wares:  These  are  all  of  medium  coarse  to  heavy  coarse  fabric, 
with  chaff  and/or  grit  inclusions.  In  general,  the  heavier  the  vessel 
body,  the  more  likely  that  there  will  be  grit  inclusions.  These  are  often 
but  not  exclusively  large  chips  of  shale  (1-2  cm.)  in  the  very  thick 
vessels.  The  medium  coarse  vessels  are  usually  chaff  tempered.  In 
none  of  these  vessels  is  the  fracture  even,  but  as  the  vessel  becomes 


coarser,  the  fracture  becomes  more  uneven.  Most  of  the  vessels  ap- 
pear to  be  slipped,  but  this  slip  has  not  been  microscopically  exam- 
ined, and  it  is  not  clear  if  it  is  a  self  slip.  On  the  finer  vessels,  how- 
ever, it  appears  to  have  been  intentionally  added.  The  colour  of  the 
slip  ranges  from  a  red  to  a  very  dark  grey  red.  The  surface  is  often 
highly  burnished,  especially  on  the  finer  vessels.  The  coarse  ones  are 
sometimes  only  smoothed.  The  core  of  the  vessels  is  tan  to  orange, 
and  usually  not  thoroughly  oxidized.  The  finer  the  vessel,  the  more 
likely  that  oxidation  is  complete.  This  pottery  forms  the  single  largest 
class  in  the  assemblage. 

b.  Light  weight  buff  ware:  This  pottery  is  very  heavily  chaff  tempered 
and  extremely  light  in  weight.  It  is  very  friable.  The  edges  of  the 
sherds  can  be  broken  off  with  the  fingers.  The  core  is  thoroughly 
oxidized.  The  fabric  is  yellow  buff  in  colour,  with  a  matte  surface, 
sometimes  smoothed.  Occasionally,  a  thin  red  wash  is  applied,  but 
it  is  streaky  and  does  not  cover  the  entire  surface.  At  times,  this  ware 
or  one  closely  resembling  it  is  cream  slipped.  This  cream  slipped 
variety  seems  to  be  somewhat  denser  than  the  unslipped  variety. 

c.  Fine  buff  wares:  A  small  group  of  fine  buff  wares,  identical  with  the 
painted  Seh  Gabi  wares,  is  present  in  this  assemblage.  For  a  de- 
scription of  the  ware,  see  2,  below. 

d.  Dalma  plain  wares:  A  small  percentage  of  the  plain  wares  is  clearly 
part  of  the  Dalma  assemblage.  They  may  however  derive  from  earlier 
levels  of  the  site,  and  may  be  in  a  secondary  context  not  properly 
part  of  the  Seh  Gabi  period  assemblage.  Note,  however,  the  continuing 
use  of  the  funnel  (Fig.  12,  No.  12)  mentioned  above. 

2.  Painted  wares  (Fig.  11):  Aside  from  a  very  small  percentage  of  Dalma 
painted  wares,  many  of  which  are  badly  worn  and  may  derive  from  brick- 
work or  fill,  all  of  the  painted  wares  form  a  single,  distinctive  group. 

The  ware  is  usually  wheel  made.  It  is  lightly  tempered  with  chaff  and 
small  grits,  with  occasional  large  grits.  The  clay  is  dense  and  fine,  the  core 
usually  fully  oxidized  and  the  break  straight  and  clean.  The  surface  is  al- 
ways matte,  and  ranges  in  colour  from  a  buff  or  cream  to  a  grayish  green. 
There  are  rare  examples  in  pinkish  buff.  The  vessel  thickness  is  usually 
uniform  on  a  given  sherd.  The  paint  is  thickly  applied,  and  confined  to 
the  upper  half  of  the  vessel.  It  is  always  on  the  outside  surface.  The  colour 
of  the  paint  in  almost  all  cases  is  jet  black,  and  it  is  usually  vitrified  and 
shiny.  There  is  a  tendency  for  the  paint  to  flake  off.  Geometric  designs  are 
the  rule,  but  some  naturalistic  motifs  occur  as  well.  This  pottery  is  often 
overfired. 

3.  Impressed  wares:  As  with  the  painted  wares,  a  small  percentage  of 
Dalma  manipulated  wares  occurs,  but  the  sherds  may,  as  was  the  case 
with  the  Dalma  plain  and  painted  wares,  be  from  fill  or  brickwork.  There 
are,  however,  some  fingertip  impressed  wares  present  which  are  part  of  the 
Seh  Gabi  period  assemblage.  These  are  impressed  more  sparsely  than  the 
Dalma  fingertip  impressed  wares,  and  the  impressions  arc  not  as  deep.  The 
impressions  often  occur  only  on  the  bottom  of  large,  flat-based  trays  with 


low  walls.  In  general,  the  fabric  of  the  impressed  wares  is  like  that  of  the 
coarser  red  slipped  wares,  but  occasionally  like  that  of  the  denser  cream 
slipped  buff  wares. 

SMALL  FINDS 

A  selection  of  small  finds  from  all  periods  is  presented  on  Fig.  15. 

1.  Ground  stone:  A  large  number  of  ground  stone  tools  were  found,  many 
in  debris  where  they  were  being  reused  as  part  of  a  general  collection  of 
stones,  some  worked  and  some  unworked.  The  ground  stone  tools  can  be 
divided  into  a  number  of  categories  according  to  form  (and  function?). 

a.  Grinding  implements:  Querns  and  quern  fragments  were  frequent  in 
the  Seh  Gabi  period  levels.  As  indicated  above,  an  almost  complete 
example  was  found  in  situ  in  the  main  room  in  Level  A.  In  general, 
the  querns  are  either  plano-concave  in  section  or  are  concave  convex. 
From  the  preserved  fragments,  most  seem  to  be  roughly  rectangular, 
but  often  they  are  trapezoidal  or  even  triangular  in  shape. 

The  standard  grindstone  used  with  these  querns  was  a  plano- 
convex one,  with  the  flat  surface  often  trending  to  a  slightly  con- 
vexity, probably  from  use,  as  it  was  this  surface  that  was  used  for 
grinding.  The  general  outline  of  these  grindstones  was  that  of  a  long 
rectangle  with  rounded  ends. 

A  number  of  fist-size  pebbles  also  appear  to  have  been  used  for 
grinding.  It  is  not  clear  on  which  sort  of  quern  these  were  used. 

Finally,  many  stones  of  assorted  shapes  have  small  depressions 
in  them.  These  are  often  polished  to  a  sheen,  and  were  it  not  for  the 
fact  that  they  occur  in  great  quantities  and  rarely  in  situ,  they  might 
be  called  door  sockets.  Often,  the  two  surfaces  of  the  stone  contain 
opposing  depressions  of  this  sort,  but  they  are  not  worn  through  to 
form  a  hole.  The  use  of  these  stones  is  unclear. 

A  number  of  small  pallets  occur,  as  do  small  pestles.  In  one  or 
two  cases,  traces  of  red  pigment  were  found  on  the  pestles.  The  pal- 
lets are  flat  or  have  a  slight  depression,  and  are  often  ground  very 
smooth  (Fig.  15.  No.  17).  The  pestles  are  usually  truncated  cones, 
with  the  bottom  of  the  cone  the  working  surface  (Fig.  15,  No.  18). 
Small  quantities  of  red  ochre  were  found  in  the  Seh  Gabi  period 
deposit,  perhaps  indicating,  in  conjunction  with  the  traces  on  the 
pestles,  that  the  pallets  and  pestles  were  used  for  grinding  pigments. 

b.  Pounding  implements:  A  few  deep  mortars  were  found.  That  they 
were  used  for  pounding  rather  than  grinding  is  surmise  at  this  point. 
Probably  associated  with  them  are  some  long  pestle-like  stones,  which 
seem  to  fit  in  terms  of  size  and  function. 

c.  Perforated  stones:  A  number  of  perforated  stones  were  found  (Fig. 
15,  No.  20).  These  are  usually  rather  flat,  and  are  in  the  vicinity  of  8 
to  10  cms.  in  diameter.  In  one  case,  the  hole  is  off  centre,  but  this  is 
the  exception.  Use  as  digging  stick  weights  or  net  or  loom  weights  may 
be  suggested,  but  no  positive  evidence  is  available. 

8 


d.  Beads:  A  few  very  small  beads  were  found,  all  with  a  diameter  of 
less  than  1  cm.  In  addition,  one  incised  bead  was  found  (Fig.  15,  No. 
24). 

e.  Cutting  tools:  The  only  ground  stone  cutting  tool  found  was  a  small 
chisel-like  flat  stone  (Fig.  15,  No.  19). 

2.  Chipped  stone:  An  analysis  of  the  chipped  stone  is  presented  in  Ap- 
pendix A. 

3.  Bone:  The  bone  divides  into  two  categories,  tools  and  ornaments. 

a.  Tools:  The  vast  majority  of  bone  tools  are  awls  made  from  the  long 
bones  of  sheep  goat.  Often  the  articulating  surface  is  present  when 
the  entire  tool  is  preserved  (Fig.  15,  Nos.  2  and  7).  Aside  from  awls, 
some  rib  bones  of  large  bovines  are  obviously  worked,  but  the  pur- 
pose of  the  tool  is  unclear  (Fig.  15,  No.  9).  Finally,  one  long  bone 
was  carefully  cut  and  the  cut  end  worked  into  a  neat  bevel  (Fig.  15, 
No.  1).  Again  the  function  is  unclear,  but  this  tool  may  have  been 
used  in  impressing  pottery. 

b.  Beads:  A  large  number  of  bone  beads  have  been  found,  some  only 
partially  completed.  These  were  cut  into  narrow  sections  from  the 
long  bones  of  sheep/goat  (Fig.  15,  No.  5).  Some  pieces  are  pre- 
served in  which  the  bead  was  in  the  process  of  manufacture  and  thus 
still  connected  to  the  bone  from  which  it  was  being  cut.  Finally,  some 
narrower  bones  were  used  as  beads  in  longer  lengths  of  up  to  5  cms. 

4.  Metal:  A  few  pieces  of  copper/bronze  were  found,  all  but  one  of  which 
were  in  doubtful  stratigraphic  context  and  so  badly  corroded  as  to  be  of 
little  use  in  determining  function.  The  exception  was  some  copper/bronze 
found  with  one  burial.  Again,  preservation  was  very  poor,  but  the  object 
seems  to  have  been  a  bead. 

5.  Shell:  A  few  pieces  of  mother  of  pearl  were  found,  but  they  were  with 
one  exception  unworked.  The  exception,  shown  on  Fig.  15,  No.  22,  was 
a  mother  of  pearl  "amulet",  which  unfortunately  comes  from  one  of  the 
transitional  levels  between  the  Dalma  and  the  Seh  Gabi  period  strata  (see 
below).  Finally,  a  few  shell  beads,  which  still  require  identification,  were 
discovered. 

6.  Pottery: 

a.  Spindle  whorls:  The  conical  spindle  whorl  shown  on  Fig.  15,  Nos.  12, 
14-16  was  the  most  common  type,  and  occurred  in  large  numbers. 
Most  specimens  are  plain  and  red  slipped.  Nos.  12  and  15  are  the 
only  two  decorated  examples  found.  In  addition,  a  number  of  bi-conical 
objects  which  have  generally  been  called  spindle  whorls  were  also 
found. 

b.  Sling  pellets:  The  two  large  caches  of  sling  pellets  mentioned  above 
were  not  the  only  such  objects  found.  In  general,  all  were  similar  in 
size  and  shape  to  the  one  shown  on  Fig.  15,  No.  25. 


c.  Balls  and  discs:  A  number  of  round  clay  balls  were  found.  These 
were  small  (c.  2  cm.)  and  baked.  Their  function  is  unknown.  The 
same  can  also  be  said  of  discs  made  of  a  broken  sherd,  rounded  and 
perforated. 

d.  Miscellaneous:  A  few  miscellaneous  clay  objects  were  found  in  the 
Seh  Gabi  period  levels.  These  include  the  small  phallic  object  on  Fig. 
15,  No.  23,  as  well  as  some  clay  cones  and  pyramids  (Fig.  15,  No.  4) 
and  some  animal  figurines  such  as  Fig.  15,  No.  11. 

BURIALS 

Eight  complete  or  partially  preserved  burials  associated  with  the  Seh  Gabi 
period  levels  were  found,  two  in  G  18,  one  in  H  19  and  five  in  G  20.  In 
most  cases,  the  exact  stratigraphic  position  was  unclear,  but  it  appears 
that  these  may  have  been  located  under  the  floors  of  houses.  All  of  the 
burials  were  of  very  young  infants  or  perhaps  even  foetuses.  In  the  well 
preserved  examples,  the  body  was  always  in  a  tightly  contracted  position, 
and  in  a  bowl  (Fig.  16,  Nos.  2  and  3).  The  bowl  was  always  of  the  red 
plain  ware,  but  the  shape  varied  from  straight  sided  to  flaring  sided.  Usu- 
ally, the  bowl  was  right  side  up,  but  in  one  case,  the  bowl  was  inverted 
over  the  skeleton  (Pis.  IX  and  X).  In  two  cases,  there  was  evidence  that 
the  body  was  either  clothed  or  wrapped  in  a  shroud.  In  one  of  the  two, 
possible  textile  fragments  were  preserved,  and  are  presently  undergoing 
analysis.  No  adult  burials  were  found  that  can  be  connected  with  the  Seh 
Gabi  period,  or  for  that  matter,  with  any  period  represented  at  Seh  Gabi. 


Mound  B  Stratigraphy 


This  concluding  section  on  the  results  of  the  excavation  on  Mound  B  is 
in  two  parts,  one  on  the  internal  stratigraphy  of  the  mound,  and  one  on 
the  comparative  stratigraphy. 

A.  Internal  stratigraphy:  As  we  stated  earlier,  there  are  two  periods  repre- 
sented on  Mound  B.  The  earlier,  the  Dalma  period,  runs  from  virgin  soil 
up  to  at  least  the  base  of  the  peasant  cut  on  the  east  side  of  the  mound. 
The  later,  the  Seh  Gabi  period,  is  present  in  the  first  three  architectural 
levels  on  the  mound  counting  from  the  top  down.  The  issue  which  is  still 
outstanding  is  the  nature  of  the  transition  between  these  two  periods.  All 
of  the  evidence  for  this  transition  comes  from  the  4x4  metre  trench  in 
G  21.  Unforunately,  we  experienced  a  great  deal  of  difficulty  in  isolating 
discrete  stratigraphic  units  in  this  trench,  and  many  of  the  lots  were  mixed. 
Much  of  the  deposit  consisted  of  bricky  collapse  and  bricky  rubble  that 
was  differentiated  only  by  slight  variations  in  consistency.  Below  this, 
there  was  a  thick  layer  of  ashy  debris  mixed  with  bricky  rubble.  This  layer 
was  subdivided,  but  it  too  was  hard  to  remove  in  discrete  units.  In  addi- 
tion, as  was  already  noted,  the  walls  in  this  trench  were  badly  preserved, 
and  the  floors  to  go  with  these  walls  were  not  readily  apparent.  Thus,  it  is 

10 


impossible  at  the  present  time  to  discuss  the  transition  between  the  two 
periods  on  stratigraphic  grounds. 

There  are,  nevertheless,  some  indications  of  continuity.  The  highly 
diagnostic  funnel,  known  from  Dalma  Tepe,  occurs  in  both  periods  at  Sch 
Gabi.  In  addition,  many  of  the  plain  wares  in  the  Seh  Gabi  period  may  be 
seen  as  derivative  from  the  Dalma  period  wares.  Finally,  the  sherds  of  the 
various  Dalma  wares  found  in  the  Seh  Gabi  levels  may  not  be  intrusive, 
and  would  indicate  the  continuance  of  the  earlier  ceramic  tradition,  if  in 
somewhat  diminished  quantitcs.  One  further  possible  indication  of  contin- 
uity exists.  We  have  had  an  opportunity  to  examine  the  field  notes  from 
Dalma  Tepe,  and  these  report  the  existence  of  burials  of  small  infants  or 
foetuses  in  bowls  immediately  under  house  floors.  While  we  have  yet  to 
discover  such  in  the  Dalma  period  levels  at  Seh  Gabi,  their  occurrence  in 
the  Seh  Gabi  levels  is  suggestive  of  an  ongoing  burial  practice. 

B.  Comparative  stratigraphy.  The  only  site  that  has  been  published  in  any 
form  which  has  material  comparable  to  the  Dalma  period  at  Seh  Gabi  is 
Dalma  Tepe  itself.10  A  three-week  stay  in  Philadelphia  during  the  summer 
of  1972  allowed  Levine  to  examine  the  material  from  Dalma  Tepe  in  the 
collections  of  the  University  Museum,  Philadelphia.11  The  correspondence 
between  the  ceramic  assemblages  of  the  two  sites  can  be  called  nothing 
less  than  remarkable.  Excepting  a  small  percentage  of  pieces  that  are  par- 
ticular to  these  two  mounds  individually,  most  of  the  material  from  Seh 
Gabi  could  be  mixed  in  with  that  from  Dalma  Tepe  and  it  would  be  im- 
possible to  distinguish  one  from  the  other  on  macroscopic  grounds.  Such 
convergence  between  sites  separated  by  more  than  250  miles  of  rugged 
mountain  terrain  is  a  phenomenon  that  is  well  worth  further  investigation. 

The  Seh  Gabi  period  material  is  still  more  difficult  to  deal  with.  As 
was  noted,  the  published  site  with  which  it  compares  most  closely  is  Tepe 
Giyan.  Unfortunately,  the  Tepe  Giyan  material  is  mixed  stratigraphically, 
and  thus  of  little  use.  The  only  statement  that  can  be  made  at  this  point 
is  that  Seh  Gabi  period  materials  occur  in  both  Giyan  Vc  and  Vd.  A  sur- 
face collection  of  sherds  from  Giyan  at  the  Royal  Ontario  Museum  shows 
the  same  overfired  painted  wares  as  those  found  at  Seh  Gabi.  Any  dis- 
cussion of  wider  connections  of  these  wares  with  the  late  Susiana  and  Susa 
A  materials  on  the  one  hand,  and  the  late  Ubaid  materials  on  the  other, 
is  beyond  the  scope  of  the  present  report. 

Absolute  dating  is  discussed  below. 


11 


The  Godin  VII  and  VI  Periods 
(Mounds  A,  E,  and  F) 


Materials  resembling  those  denned  at  Godin  Tepe  in  periods  VII  and  VI 
were  found  in  a  number  of  test  soundings  carried  out  on  Mounds  A,  E 
and  F.  The  soundings  in  Mound  A  were  2x2  metre  squares  in  P  43  and 
K  38;  those  in  Mound  F  consisted  of  a  2  x  4  metre  square  in  Y51,  along 
the  edge  of  the  peasant  cut  in  that  mound,  and  an  irregularly  shaped  sound- 
ing in  Y  50,  which  totalled  12  square  metres  in  area;  the  trench  in  Mound 
E  was  located  in  square  F  46,  and  was  4x5  metres  in  area.  All  were 
supervised  in  a  rather  haphazard  manner  for  the  most  part,  and  were  dug 
to  obtain  gross  information  on  the  ceramic  assemblages  in  these  mounds. 

ARCHITECTURE 

No  architecture  worth  noting  was  found  in  any  of  the  soundings.  A  few 
small  walls  were  found  in  P  43  and  Y  51,  but  the  areas  opened  were  too 
small  to  expect  significant  architectural  results.  In  Y  50  and  F  46,  no  archi- 
tecture was  encountered.  While  this  may  be  a  function  of  the  manner  in 
which  the  areas  were  dug,  it  should  be  pointed  out  that  the  balks  were 
carefully  examined,  and  no  trace  of  a  wall  appeared  in  any  of  them.  It 
is  hoped  that  future  excavations  on  these  mounds  will  yield  substantial 
architectural  remains. 

POTTERY 

The  classification  of  the  pottery  from  Periods  VII  and  VI  at  Godin  as 
presented  by  Young  is  applicable  to  the  pottery  found  on  these  mounds 
at  Seh  Gabi,  and  need  not  be  repeated  here.12  The  larger  sample  of  sherds 
from  Seh  Gabi,  however,  does  make  it  possible  to  add  somewhat  to 
Young's  earlier  remarks. 

1.  Painted  wares:  The  painted  wares  are,  at  least  to  our  eye,  markedly  dif- 
ferent from  Seh  Gabi  painted  wares.  The  surface  is  almost  always  smoothed 
or  burnished,  and  has  a  slightly  soapy  feel.  The  paint  varies  in  colour 
from  a  tan  to  an  almost  black,  but  it  is  rarely  overfired  to  the  glossy  black 
which  is  the  rule  on  Mound  B,  and  it  is  usually  matte  and  at  times  fugitive. 
An  impressionistic  over-view  of  the  motifs  are  that  they  are  unlike  those 
from  Mound  B,  but  a  final  assessment  of  this  problem  will  have  to  await 
the  completion  of  the  detailed  study  now  in  progress. 

2.  Coarse  wares:  As  Young  noted,  the  parallels  at  other  sites  to  the  coarse 
wares  are  of  a  very  generalized  nature.13  Thanks  to  the  larger  amount  of 
material  now  available  to  us,  we  can  point  out  some  of  the  index  fossils 
of  this  assemblage,  although  we  are  as  yet  unable  to  draw  good  parallels 
with  other  published  sites. 

a.  Finger  pinched  wavy  bands:  Figure  13,  Nos.  1,  2  and  4,  are  examples 
of  this  technique.  The  clay  was  pinched  between  the  thumb  and  index 

12 


finger  to  produce  the  wavy  raised  line.  The  decoration  is  confined  to 
the  upper  part  of  the  vessel,  and  occurs  in  a  narrow  band.14 

b.  Slash  incisions :  A  thickened  rim  is  often  incised  with  some  sort  of  a 
blade  in  a  number  of  patterns  (Fig.  13,  Nos.  3,  5,  7  and  8).  Similar 
incisions  also  cover  the  entire  body  of  some  vessels  as  in  Fig.  13, 
Nos.  10  and  17.  This  incised  ware  is  unlike  that  from  the  Dalma 
period. 

c.  Finger  impressed  lugs:  A  long  narrow  lug  was  applied  to  the  body  of 
the  vessel,  and  this  lug  was  then  impressed  with  the  fingers,  as  in  Fig. 
13,  Nos.  9  and  12  and  Fig.  16,  Nos.  la  and  4a.  The  lug  was  either 
on  the  rim  of  the  vessel  or  at  the  point  of  maximum  diameter. 

d.  Thin  based  strainers:  Fig.  13,  No.  15  shows  a  highly  diagnostic  form 
from  this  period.  A  bowl  with  sharply  insloping  sides  and  a  thin  base 
had  two  rows  of  holes  pierced  through  the  walls  of  the  vessel.  The 
base  is  so  thin  that  it  seems  hardly  capable  of  surviving  any  kind  of 
use.  The  vessel  was  clearly  made  for  a  highly  specialized,  as  yet 
undetermined  function. 

SMALL  FINDS 

1.  Ground  stone:  A  single  mortar  or  door  socket  was  found  in  P  43.  The 
depression  is  highly  polished,  but  the  rest  of  the  stone  is  unworked.  The 
only  other  stone  object  recovered  Is  a  plano-convex  disc  with  a  perforation 
through  the  centre.  It  measures  4.8  cm.  in  diameter  and  is  1.6  cm.  high. 

2.  Pottery:  A  wide  range  of  pottery  objects  were  found. 

a.  Spindle  whorls:  The  spindle  whorls  from  these  mounds  differ  from 
those  found  on  Mound  B.  They  are  generally  in  the  shape  of  a  flat- 
tened cone,  with  the  lower  part  in-sloping  and  the  depression  shallow. 
In  one  case,  there  is  a  row  of  fingernail  impressions  around  the  lower 
part  of  the  outer  surface.  Fig.  15,  No.  13  is  a  typical  example. 

b.  Balls,  discs,  cones:  A  common  find  in  all  of  the  soundings  was  a  small 
clay  disc  with  concave  surfaces  (Fig.  15,  No.  6).  Small  clay  balls 
and  cones,  under  3  cm.  in  size,  were  also  found. 

c.  Miscellaneous:  A  flat  clay  object  shaped  like  a  hook  was  found  but  the 
function  is  unknown  (Fig.  15,  No.  8).  One  cylindrical  clay  bead  and 
one  animal  figurine  were  also  found.  Finally  a  clay  sealing  of  geometric 
design,  with  the  impressions  of  the  string  still  preserved  on  the  reverse, 
was  discovered  in  F  46  (Fig.  15,  No.  3). 

3.  Bone:  A  few  assorted  bone  awls  and  one  bone  bead  were  the  only  ob- 
jects recovered. 

BURIALS 

Two  burials  were  recovered  from  the  Period  VII  deposits  on  Mound  E,  in 
square  F  46.  These  differ  markedly  from  those  found  on  Mound  B.  In 
the  first  place,  they  appear  to  have  been  extramural.  No  associated  archi- 
tecture appeared  in  either  the  horizontal  or  the  sections.  Both  burials  were 
of  children,  but  they  were  older  than  the  infants  found  on  Mound  B.  The 
burials  were  in  large  pots,  which  were  covered  with  large  bowls  used  as  a 

13 


lid  (Fig.  16,  Nos.  1  and  4).  The  burials  were  primary,  and  the  bodies 
were  in  a  tightly  flexed  position.  No  grave  goods  were  found  with  either 
of  the  two  skeletons. 


Mounds  A,  E  and  F  Stratigraphy 


The  nature  of  the  excavation  on  these  mounds  makes  it  difficult  to  be 
overly  precise  about  the  stratigraphy.  Thus,  the  following  comments  are 
largely  provisional  in  character. 

In  both  F  46  and  Y  50,  the  lowest  strata  appear  to  be  equivalent  to 
Godin  VII.  Little  fine  ware  or  painted  ware  appears,  and  many  of  the  diag- 
nostic forms  of  the  coarse  wares  are  present.  The  upper  strata  exhibit  a 
larger  quantity  of  the  fine  wares,  both  painted  and  unpainted,  and  are  thus 
apparently  comparable  to  the  Godin  VI  assemblage. 

The  problem  with  this  scheme  lies  not  in  one-to-one  parallels  that  can 
be  drawn  between  Seh  Gabi  and  Godin,  but  rather  in  the  nature  of  the 
transition  between  Godin  VII  and  VI  at  Godin  itself.  As  was  pointed  out 
by  Young,  Period  VI  is  largely  defined  by  the  higher  statistical  occurrence 
of  fine  wares,  which  are  present  but  rare  in  Godin  VII  as  well.  Until  we 
have  a  well  excavated  assemblage  from  Seh  Gabi,  it  is  impossible  to  say 
whether  we  are  dealing  with  the  Godin  VII  range  exclusively,  or  whether 
we  have  an  assemblage  comparable  in  part  to  Godin  VI  as  well.  At  pres- 
ent, the  latter  possibility  appears  the  more  likely,  but  it  also  seems  likely 
that  we  do  not  have  the  later  part  of  the  Godin  VI  time  range,  as  defined 
by  Young. 

Aside  from  the  Godin  VII  and  VI  parallels,  little  can  be  said  about 
comparative  material.  Among  the  painted  wares  are  those  which  corre- 
spond to  Giyan  Vd  and  Siyalk  III  sherds,  but  data  from  both  these  sites 
are  difficult  to  use  with  precision.  Of  great  importance  is  the  work  of  the 
University  of  Tehran  at  the  site  of  Sagsabad.  The  director,  Dr.  E.  Neghaban, 
kindly  allowed  me  to  see  some  of  the  material  from  the  1971  season  in 
which  there  are  many  parallels  to  both  the  painted  wares  and,  more  im- 
portantly, to  the  diagnostic  plain  wares.  The  publication  of  this  material  is 
eagerly  awaited. 


The  Stratigraphy  of  Seh  Gabi 


As  was  noted  in  the  introduction,  the  relative  sequence  of  the  four  periods 
represented  at  Seh  Gabi  remains  a  problem.  Two  pieces  of  data  need  to 
be  noted.  The  first  is  that  there  are  indications  of  a  smooth  transition 
from  the  Dalma  period  levels  to  the  Seh  Gabi  period  levels.  The  second 
is  that  an  equally  smooth  transition  seems  to  characterize  the  Godin  VII 
and  VI  periods.  Thus,  the  choices  left  to  us  are  1 )  putting  Godin  VII  after 

14 


the  Seh  Gabi  period,  or  2)  putting  the  Dalma  period  after  Godin  VI.  The 
possibility  that  the  two  developments  are  contemporary  on  mounds  that 
are  separated  by  only  200  metres  seems  unlikely,  especially  as  there  is 
virtually  no  mixing  of  materials  from  the  eastern  group  of  mounds  with 
those  from  Mound  B.  Of  the  two  choices,  the  priority  of  the  Dalma  and 
Seh  Gabi  periods  over  those  of  Godin  VII  and  VI  seems  preferable  to  us 
at  this  time.  The  existence  of  transitional  materials  between  Godin  VI 
and  Godin  V  would  point  to  VI  being  a  terminal  neolithic  assemblage,  and 
would  argue  for  its  being  the  latest  in  the  neolithic  sequence  in  the  Kanga- 
var  valley.  In  addition  at  Tepe  Giyan,  Seh  Gabi  painted  wares  appear  in 
Vc  and  Vd,  while  the  Godin  VI  painted  ware  is  restricted  to  Vd.  Finally, 
Dalma  sherds  appear  in  Giyan  Vb  levels.  This  would  indicate  a  sequence 
Dalma,  Seh  Gabi,  Godin  VI  at  Giyan.  Given  the  nature  of  the  Giyan 
sample  our  conclusions  are  admittedly  tentative. 

We  would  thus  suggest  that  the  sequence  at  Seh  Gabi  may  be  as  fol- 
lows. Mound  B  is  the  earliest  settlement,  followed  by  A,  E  and  F.  The 
order  of  these  latter  mounds  is  still  undetermined.  The  order  of  the  periods 
at  Seh  Gabi  would  then  be  Dalma  as  the  earliest,  followed  by  Seh  Gabi, 
Godin  VII  and  Godin  VI.  This  leaves  Godin  VII  as  a  new  and  unexplained 
phenomenon  in  the  neolithic  sequence  of  western  Iran,  but  such  an  order- 
ing appears  to  be  the  most  elegant  solution  to  the  problem  right  now. 

A  final  task  remains.  Dates  have  to  be  assigned  to  the  various  periods. 
As  yet,  none  of  the  radiocarbon  samples  recovered  has  been  run,  so  dates 
are  based  on  comparative  material  from  other  sites  only.  The  Dalma  per- 
iod is  probably  to  be  assigned  dates  of  c.  4500-4000  B.C.,  although  the 
lower  limit  may  be  too  high.  Seh  Gabi  period  materials  would  then  roughly 
fit  between  4000  and  3700,  Godin  VII  between  3700  and  3400,  and  Godin 
VI  3400-3100  B.C.  These  are  dates  based  upon  radio-carbon  determina- 
tions from  other  sites,  and  on  a  half  life  of  5730,  uncorrected.15  If  the 
correction  factor  is  added,  the  entire  sequence  will  have  to  be  expanded. 


15 


GODIN  TEPE 

Introduction 


The  1969  season  of  excavations  at  Godin  Tepe  lasted  from  June  20  to 
September  18.  One  major  project  was  the  continued  clearance  of  the  area 
on  the  north  side  of  the  Upper  Citadel  mound  which  had  been  selected  for 
extended  sounding  in  1967.  Defined  by  the  grid  squares  CI,  C2,  Bl,  B2, 
Al  and  A2  and  the  western  half  of  the  two  squares  AA1  and  AA2,  this 
operation  (hereafter  referred  to  as  the  Deep  Sounding)  covers  an  average 
area  of  approximately  700  square  metres.  In  1969  this  operation  was  con- 
fined to  levels  dating  to  Period  III.  We  completed  the  clearance  of  level 
111:2,  begun  in  1967  and  laid  bare  Levels  111:3  and  111:4  over  the  entire 
operation.  A  second  major  objective  of  the  1969  season  was  continued 
excavation  of  the  large  Period  II  fortified  manor  house  which  covers  the 
whole  of  the  Upper  Citadel  mound.  By  the  end  of  the  season  a  total  of 
approximately  4000  square  metres  had  been  opened  in  the  search  for  this 
structure.  These  excavations  were  recorded  by  grid  square  but  actual  dig- 
ging followed  the  plan  of  the  structure  as  it  unfolded,  with  section  balks 
left  only  where  needed  and  useful.  A  third  objective  was  the  beginning  of 
an  area  clearance  on  the  south  edge  of  the  Citadel  mound  in  the  grid 
squares  AA9  and  AA10.  It  was  hoped  that  this  operation  might  be  profit- 
ably expanded  in  order  to  expose  a  large  area  of  the  upper  Period  III 
construction  level  in  this  area,  but  a  month  of  work  here  suggested  that 
further  excavation  was  unwarranted.  Finally,  four  small  uncontrolled  cuts, 
Operations  R,  S,  T,  and  U,  were  made  at  the  eastern  top  and  base  of  the 
Citadel  mound  to  test  the  gross  sequence  and  the  extent  of  occupation  in 
any  given  period  in  this  part  of  the  site. 

The  1971  season  lasted  from  May  26  to  September  15.  Work  in  the 
Deep  Soundings  was  continued.  About  half  way  through  the  season  Ops. 
C2,  B2  and  A2  had  to  be  stepped  north  5  metres,  and  Ops.  AA1  and  AA2 
were  converted  to  a  large  test  trench  down  the  east  side  of  the  Deep  Sound- 
ing. Most  of  the  area  lost  to  excavation  in  this  manner,  however,  was  re- 
covered by  our  reaching  a  depth  such  that  significant  sections  of  grid 
squares  A01  and  B01  became  available  for  excavation.  Still,  by  the  end 
of  the  season  the  Deep  Sounding  only  covered  an  area  of  about  600  square 
metres.  In  all  operations  except  AOl  and  BOl  we  were  still  in  Period  III 
deposits  when  the  season  closed.  In  the  two  northernmost  operations  we 
had  uncovered  a  single,  badly  damaged  and  eroded  construction  level  dat- 
ing to  Period  IV.  Our  second  effort  in  1971  was  directed  to  what  we  hoped 
would  be  the  completion  of  the  Period  II  fortified  manor  house.  This 
proved  impossible,  however,  though  matters  were  brought  to  the  point 
where  we  can  be  reasonably  sure  of  recovering  all  that  remains  of  this  im- 
portant structure  by  the  end  of  the  1973  season.  Once  again  small  uncon- 
trolled trenches  were  cut  at  various  points  to  test  gross  sequences:  Op.  W 
and  X  at  the  upper  western  edge  of  the  Citadel  mound,  and  Op.  YE,  and 
YW  and  Z  at  the  base  of  the  west  end  of  the  Citadel  mound  in  an  area 
much  cut  away  by  the  locals  for  earth  with  which  to  make  bricks  (PI.  XI). 

16 


Periods  VII  to  IV 


PERIOD  VII 

No  further  material  which  can  with  certainty  be  assigned  to  Period  VII  has 
been  recovered  in  excavations  at  Godin  Tepe.  None  of  the  several  uncon- 
trolled operations  which  have  gone  to  virgin  soil  has  yielded  Period  VII 
material,  and,  though  the  record  is  as  yet  incomplete,  it  begins  to  look  as 
though  the  Period  VII  mound  was  a  small  one  located  only  in  the  general 
area  of  Op.  B  cut  in  the  1965  season.  A  few  sherds  of  Period  VII  date 
were  recovered  in  the  lowest  levels  of  Op.  Ml  cut  in  the  south  flat  in  1967, 
but  solid  evidence  for  a  Period  VII  occupation  in  that  area  is  something 
we  shall  search  for  in  1973.  If  there  does  prove  to  be  such  an  occupation, 
then  we  may  have  evidence  at  Godin  for  two  separate  small  mounds  in 
Period  VII. 

PERIOD  VI 

The  only  Period  VI  materials  recovered  since  our  last  report  are  from  the 
uncontrolled  Op.  YE.  Virgin  soil  was  not  reached.  Bricky  collapse  strata 
containing  Period  VI  plain  and  painted  wares  were  found  below  a  shallow 
deposit  of  Period  V  date.  The  latter  appears  to  rest  conformably  on  the 
former.  Further  excavations  will  be  undertaken  in  this  area  in  1973. 

period  v 

Period  V  materials  have  been  recovered  in  Ops.  YE,  YW  and  Z.  In  Op. 
YE  they  probably  represent  the  remains  of  a  single  building  level  —  all 
that  is  left  of  a  once  deeper  deposit  much  destroyed  by  the  modern  brick 
makers.  In  Ops.  T  and  U,  Period  V  deposits  were  found  underlying  Period 
IV  materials  and  resting  on  virgin  soil.  Such  evidence  as  we  now  have 
from  the  several  cuttings  at  the  base  of  the  Citadel  mound  strongly  sug- 
gests that  it  was  in  Period  V  that  the  mound  grew  in  size  to  include  the 
whole  of  the  area  covered  by  the  Citadel  mound,  whereas  the  Period  VI 
site  (or  sites)   had  been  very  much  smaller. 

PERIOD  IV 

Period  IV  materials  were  recovered  from  Ops.  T  and  U  and,  in  the  Deep 
Sounding,  from  Ops.  AOl  and  BOl.  In  the  latter  area  there  is  further  evi- 
dence to  suggest  that  the  Period  III  deposit  rests  unconformably  on  the 
eroded  upper  surface  of  Period  IV.10  Here  the  IV  deposit  was  thin  (maxi- 
mum depth  1.50  metres).  In  BOl  a  large  "ceremonial"  hearth  which  had 
been  rebuilt  and  replastered  on  several  occasions  was  found,  unfortunately 
with  its  northern  edge  badly  damaged  by  the  erosion  which  has  cut  away 
the  north  face  of  the  mound.  In  AOl  a  scries  of  small,  flimsy  walls  en- 
closing hearths,  all  rather  suggestive  of  some  kind  of  industrial  area,  were 
found.  Detailed  presentation  of  these  structures  must  await  the  clearance 
of  area  immediately  to  the  south  (Ops.  Al  and  Bl).  In  Ops.  T  and  U, 
Period  IV  material  rested  apparently  unconformably  on  Period  V  deposits. 

17 


No  Period  IV  structures  were  found  in  either  cut,  the  deposit,  as  in  Ops.  F 
and  P,  being  a  series  of  trash  tip  lines  sloping  downwards  from  the  Citadel 
mound.  It  would  seem  that  the  Period  IV  mound  was  slightly  smaller  than 
the  mound  of  Period  V. 

No  pottery  was  discovered  in  these  operations  which  differs  in  any 
notable  way  from  the  pottery  of  Period  IV  described  in  our  earlier  report. 

Further  examples  are  illustrated  (Fig.  19),  along  with  a  few  Period  IV 
small  finds. 


Period  III 


STRATIFICATION 

Period  III  materials  have  been  found  immediately  below  the  surface  of  the 
Citadel  mound  in  Ops.  S,  R,  W  and  X.  In  Ops.  AA9  and  AA10,  Period 
III  structures  were  overlain  by  a  very  thin  deposit  derived  from  flimsy 
structures  dating  to  Period  II.  The  great  bulk  of  Period  III  material,  of 
course,  has  been  recovered  from  the  Deep  Sounding,  strata  5 A  to  18A  (Fig. 
18). 

In  the  Deep  Sounding  we  had  completed  the  clearance  of  Level  111:1 
and  part  of  Level  IIL2A  by  the  time  of  our  last  progress  report.17  Since 
then  we  have  increased  the  depth  of  the  sounding  by  between  4  and  5 
metres  to  a  total  average  depth  of  some  7  metres.  Level  111:2  proved  to 
have  undergone  three  phases  of  construction  and  reconstruction,  labeled 
Levels  III: 2 A,  2B  and  2C  in  descending  order.  Immediately  below  these 
111:2  structures  lay  the  very  scrappy  and  poorly  defined  remains  of  build- 
ings which  had  covered  only  parts  of  the  area  under  excavation.  Little  in 
the  way  of  an  articulate  plan  could  be  drawn  of  this  building  level,  but 
enough  was  recovered  to  indicate  that  we  were  certainly  not  dealing  either 
with  a  still  earlier  phase  of  Level  111:2  or  with  a  final  phase  of  Level  111:4. 
Thus  these  structures  were  awarded  a  level  number  in  their  own  right, 
Level  111:3.  In  parts  of  the  area  under  excavation  Level  111:3  rested  im- 
mediately on  the  upper  surface  of  deposits  related  to  Level  111:4;  in  others 
(see  esp.  the  Master  Section.  Fig.  18,  for  Op.  A2  and  strata  12D  to  12L, 
14C  and  14J)  there  is  clear  evidence  for  abandonment  between  Levels 
111:4  and  111:3  during  which  time  large  quantities  of  trash  and  wash  de- 
rived from  elsewhere  on  the  mound  accumulated  in  the  area  under  exca- 
vation. 

Thus  the  basic  stratigraphic  pattern  from  the  end  of  Level  111:4  up- 
ward is  similar  to  and  a  continuation  of  that  which  marked  the  relationship 
between  Levels  IIL2A  and  111:1  described  in  our  last  report.18  After  the 
abandonment  of  Level  111:4  only  a  part  of  the  area  under  excavation  was 
occupied,  and  even  that  occupation  appears  to  have  been  unsubstantial. 
The  mound,  however,  was  by  no  means  abandoned;  Period  III  occupation 
continued  in  areas  outside  of  the  limits  of  the  Deep  Sounding.  It  is  that 
occupation,  combined  with  such  activity  as  was  taking  place  within  the 
area  excavated  (toward  the  west  end  of  the  sounding),  which  produced 


18 


the  collapse,  wash  and  trash  represented  by  strata  12D  to  12L,  14C  and 
14J  in  Op.  A2.  The  area  under  excavation  was  then  completely  reoccupied 
and  the  structures  of  Level  III:2C  were  built  (Fig.  22).  The  structures  of 
this  level  at  the  east  end  of  the  sounding  in  Ops.  Al,  A2,  AA1  and  AA2 
went  through  an  intermediate  phase  of  reconstruction  and  reorganization 
labeled  Level  III:2B  (plan  not  given).  Then  a  major  reconstruction  took 
place,  labelled  Level  III:2A  (Fig.  23).  As  described  in  our  earlier  report, 
eventually  the  structures  of  Level  111:2  were  abandoned  completely,  the 
Period  III  occupation  in  the  area  of  the  Deep  Sounding  was  again  inter- 
rupted, deposits  of  wash  and  trash  collected  over  and  around  the  wall  stubs 
of  Level  III: 2 A,  and  only  later  the  structures  of  Level  111:1  were  built. 
Properly  speaking,  therefore,  from  the  end  of  Level  111:4  upwards  we 
really  have  recovered  only  a  part  of  the  Period  III  sequence  at  Godin  Tepe. 
At  a  minimum  we  are  missing  a  major  construction  level  between  each  of 
the  principal  architectural  complexes  which  we  have  been  able  to  describe. 
At  least  one  occupation  is  entirely  missing  between  Level  111:1  and  111:2, 
and  part  of  an  occupation  is  missing  between  Levels  111:2  and  111:3  and 
between  Levels  111:3  and  111:4.  These  very  fundamental  stratigraphic  con- 
siderations must  be  kept  in  mind  when  dealing  with  the  materials  recovered 
in  terms  of  either  relative  or  absolute  chronology. 

From  Level  111:4  downward  the  stratigraphic  situation  changed  mark- 
edly. There  were  no  longer  any  major  interruptions  in  the  sequence  of 
constructions  and  reconstructions.  For  ease  of  presentation  we  have  con- 
tinued the  practice  of  giving  different  building  level  designations  to  the 
architectural  remains  when  structural  configurations  are  so  changed  as  not 
to  be  recognizably  related  to  earlier  configurations.  In  fact,  however,  such 
distinctions  are  as  arbitrary  and  heuristic  as  the  division  into  periods  of 
an  historical  continuum  such  as  the  Rennaisance  and  the  High  Middle 
Ages,  or  the  Ubaid  and  the  Early  Uruk  periods  in  Mesopotamia.  The  fact 
is  that  Level  111:4 A  is  really  just  a  very  evolved  configuration  of  the  struc- 
tures first  built  in  Level  IIL5E.  At  no  point  in  the  sequence  was  the  evo- 
lutionary development  of  the  architecture  broken  by  any  significant  aban- 
donment of  the  area  under  excavation.  We  found  this  situation  difficult  to 
deal  with  during  excavation,  and  it  is  no  easier  to  describe  after  the  fact. 

What  has  happened  is  that  we  have  opened  a  large  enough  area,  on  a 
part  of  the  mound  which  was  not  abandoned  for  a  long  enough  period  of 
time,  that  what  we  have  recovered  is  the  stratigraphic  record  of  literally 
scores  of  minor  rcbuildings  and  structural  adjustments  such  as  are  typical 
of  any  continuously  occupied  modern  Near  Eastern  village.  Over  a  long 
period  of  time  these  multiple  individual  rcbuildings,  combined  with  the 
natural  trash  resulting  from  people  living  in  these  structures,  result  in  the 
accumulation  of  a  deep  archaeological  deposit.  At  first  we  called  this 
phenomenon  "spiral  stratigraphy,"10  for  that  is  exactly  the  impression  you 
get  in  tracing  any  given  stratum  around  the  Deep  Sounding.  For  example, 
we  could  take  the  floor,  and  trash  deposit  on  that  floor,  which  in  Op.  CI 
defined  Level  IIL5B,  and  trace  it  south  into  Op.  C2  and  then  cast  into 
Op.  B2.  The  associated  structure  in  Op.  B2  was  then  labelled  Level 
III:5B.  A  similar  stratum  associated  with  the  structures  of  Level  III : 5B  in 

19 


Op.  B2  was  then  traced  farther  east  in  Op.  A2,  where  it  was  suddenly  found 
to  be  associated  with  structures  labeled  III: 5 A,  since  they  were  the  walls 
immediately  underlying  Level  III:4B  in  that  operation.  If  we  continued  to 
trace  that  same  stratum,  turning  north  and  then  heading  back  west  to 
our  starting  point  in  Op.  CI,  we  were  likely  to  find  that  by  the  time  we 
arrived  back  in  Op.  CI,  we  were  following  the  stratum  that  had  originally 
defined  the  floor  of  the  structures  labelled  III:4B  in  that  operation,  and 
were  by  now  perhaps  as  much  as  a  metre  or  more  higher  up  the  section 
than  where  we  started.  We  cannot  think  of  a  better  illustration  of  the  well 
known  truth  that  all  periodization  of  the  historical  record  is  only  a  useful 
fiction  of  analysis. 

"Spiral  stratigraphy",  however,  does  not  really  quite  describe  the 
phenomenon.  The  growth  and  development  of  a  Near  Eastern  site  cannot 
even  be  seen  as  that  regular.  Rather,  what  is  happening  can  only  be  de- 
scribed as  a  quite  irrergular,  unpatterned  growth  of  deposition.  Recon- 
structions appear  perhaps  first  in  the  centre  of  the  area  under  excavation, 
then  in  the  east,  then  in  the  west.  Or  perhaps  twice  to  the  west,  then  in 
the  east,  then  in  the  centre.  There  simply  is  no  regular,  predictable  se- 
quence of  events.  One  must  imagine  a  child  who,  while  building  a  large 
square  tower  out  of  small,  irregular  shaped  blocks,  never  manages  during 
the  actual  construction  process  to  get  the  top  of  his  tower  all  on  one  level. 

Several  important  implications  follow  from  a  recognition  of  "spiral 
stratigraphy"  (we  have  yet  to  come  up  with  a  better  catch-word  phase 
for  the  phenomenon).  1)  You  will  only  find  it  if  you  dig  a  big  enough 
horizontal  area  of  the  site.  Obviously,  if  we  had  opened  a  much  larger  area 
of  Levels  111:1  to  111:3  we  might  very  well  have  discovered  that  these 
"levels"  have  the  same  kind  of  stratigraphic  relationship  one  to  another  as 
do  Levels  111:5  and  111:4.  The  corollary  of  this  observation  is  also  true:  if 
you  put  a  small  enough  trench  in  a  mound  you  will  get  a  distinctly  dif- 
ferent impression  of  the  stratigraphic  relationships  of  your  materials.  2) 
The  observations  which  led  us  to  distinguish  the  reconstructions  of  Levels 
IIL2C,  2B  and  2 A  were  simply  observations  of  "spiral  stratigraphy"  on  a 
miniature  scale.  3)  Real,  chronologically  significant  breaks  in  the  occupa- 
tional sequence  of  a  site  are  often  very  hard  to  determine.  4)  It  will  be  a 
difficult  thing  to  clear  a  single  building  level  over  a  very  wide  area  and  be 
assured  that  materials  recovered  at  one  extreme  of  that  clearance  are  actu- 
ally contemporary  with  materials  recovered  from  the  other  extreme  of  the 
area  excavated.  5)  It  will  be  some  time  before  we  develop  recording  and 
descriptive  techniques  which  will  allow  us  to  deal  effectively  with  the 
chronological  and  cultural  implications  of  materials  recovered  from  such 
a  complicated  stratigraphic  context.  Near  Eastern  archaeologists  are  a  long 
way  from  understanding  stratigraphy  in  anything  but  frighteningly  simplis- 
tic terms. 

ARCHITECTURE 

No  articulated  structural  remains  have  been  recovered  from  Ops.  S,  R,  W 
and  X.  In  Ops.  AA9  and  AA10  we  found  the  stone  foundations  of  a 
structure  consisting  of  at  least  three  rooms  and  what  may  have  been  a 

20 


paved  courtyard  (Fig.  24).  Part  of  the  purpose  of  a  trench  in  this  location 
was  to  determine  whether  or  not  there  was  any  fortification  wall  of  Period 
III  at  the  edge  of  the  Citadel  mound.  At  first  it  seemed  that  the  structure 
recovered  might  be  some  kind  of  casemate  wall,  since  it  is  aligned  with 
the  edge  of  the  Citadel  mound,  but  the  structure  does  not  appear  to  con- 
tinue any  farther  east  and  west  than  shown  in  Fig.  24.  A  deep  trench  was 
extended  south  over  and  down  the  edge  of  the  Citadel  mound  from  Op. 
AA10,  and,  though  perhaps  about  half  of  the  total  depth  of  the  Period 
III  deposit  was  sounded,  no  evidence  of  any  fortification  wall  was  dis- 
covered. 

An  unburied  body  was  found  in  Op.  AA9  in  the  Period  III  deposit. 
Burial  1  of  Op.  AA9  was  in  st.  4  on  a  surface  associated  with  the  Period 
III  structures.  The  body  lay  in  the  northeast  corner  of  the  operation,  head 
to  the  south  and  torso  and  legs  lying  almost  parallel  with  the  east  balk 
section,  and  the  body  was  close  enough  to  the  balk  that  had  it  been  a 
burial  such  evidence  would  have  been  present  in  the  section.  The  body 
was  supine,  with  the  legs  drawn  up  so  that  the  knees  stuck  straight  up.  The 
knees  themselves  had  been  chopped  off  in  ancient  times  during  the  laying 
of  the  floor  of  the  Period  II  structure  of  strata  2  and  3  (Fig.  43).  Both 
arms  were  across  the  chest,  with  the  left  hand  at  the  throat  and  the  right 
hand  at  the  left  elbow.  There  were  no  objects  associated  with  the  body 
ether  than  a  bronze  arrow  head  which  was  found  still  imbedded  in  the  6th, 
7th  and  8th  thoracic  vertebrae.  The  arrow  had  entered  the  body  on  a 
descending  arc,  nipped  the  6th  thoracic  vertebrae,  cut  through  the  7th, 
severed  the  spinal  chord  between  the  7th  and  8th  and  cut  the  ventral  edge 
of  the  8th  thoracic  vertebra  (Fig.  34,  No.  1;  PL  XII).  There  was  no  other 
evidence  of  violence  in  the  area.  How  the  body  came  to  this  location,  how 
it  was  buried  in  the  debris  of  wall  collapse  and  wash  derived  from  Period 
III  structures  and  what  larger  events  might  be  associated  with  the  shooting 
remain  complete  mysteries.  One  would  suppose  that  the  shooting  and 
death  are  in  some  way  related  to  the  final  abandonment  of  the  Period  III 
occupation,  but  nowhere  else  is  there  evidence  that  the  abandonment  in- 
volved violence. 

It  is  not  yet  possible  to  present  in  detail  all  of  the  several  building 
levels  recovered  from  the  Deep  Sounding.  Thus  the  discussion  here  is  con- 
fined to  one  or  two  characteristic  phases  from  each  of  the  main  building 
levels  defined,  excepting  Level  111:3,  which  is  not  discussed  at  all. 

Level  111:2:  The  earliest  phase,  Level  IIL2C  reveals  the  remains  of  per- 
haps four  separate  structures  (Fig.  22).  Those  in  the  west  half  of  the  area 
excavated  are  discussed  below  under  Level  III :2A.  Here  we  are  interested 
only  in  the  rather  large  structure  falling  almost  entirely  in  Ops.  Al,  A2, 
AA1  and  AA2.  This  building,  the  final  phase  of  which  was  in  part  un- 
covered in  1967,  is  described  in  our  earlier  report.  In  this  its  earliest  con- 
figuration we  see  that  it  was  almost  a  monumental  structure.  Area  6  is  out- 
side the  building;  perhaps  the  end  of  a  street.  To  the  east  is  the  grand 
entrance  to  the  building.  After  crossing  a  stone  paved  threshold,  one 
entered  room   1 ,  a  hall  or  corridor  with  benches  against  the  north  and 

21 


south  walls.  These  well  made,  mud-plastered  benches  had  plastered  arm 
rests  at  either  end,  giving  rather  the  effect  of  large  sofas  or  chesterfields 
(PL  XIII).  The  corridor  led  on  to  the  east  out  of  the  area  excavated.  One 
could,  however,  also  exit  to  the  north,  stepping  down  into  room  2.  This 
was  a  large,  apparently  roofed  room,  with  a  rather  curious  central  hearth 
(PI.  XIV).  The  hearth  itself  consisted  of  a  square  pottery  tray  with  high 
sides,  resting  on  the  ground.  Around  at  least  three,  and  we  may  assume 
four,  sides  of  this  tray  ran  a  low  plastered  mud  brick  bench  on  which 
people  could  sit  to  warm  themselves  at  the  fire.  One  is  tempted  to  suggest 
that  this  complex  of  hearth  and  bench  functioned  much  like  a  modern 
Iranian  kursi.  The  ceramic  hearth  performed  the  function  of  the  modern 
metal  manqal;  a  large  quilt  would  be  held  up  well  above  the  hearth  by 
some  kind  of  a  wooden  or  metal  frame,  and  the  people  would  sit  around 
the  fire  on  the  bench  with  the  quilt  snug  up  under  the  arm  pits.  Today 
with  such  a  rig  one  can  keep  a  dozen  or  more  people  quite  warm  all  day 
on  a  handful  of  charcoal. 

Rooms  3,  4,  5,  7,  8,  9  and  10  remained  unaltered  through  all  phases 
of  Level  111:2  and  have  already  been  described.20  Rooms  11  and  12,  how- 
ever, were  only  excavated  in  1969.  These  two  rooms  may  be  part  of  a 
separate  structure.  One  could,  of  course,  argue  the  same  way  in  regard  to 
rooms  8  and  9.  Perhaps  it  is  most  logical  to  see  the  building  with  the 
grand  entrance  and  the  large  room  with  the  hearth  as  a  single  structure 
belonging  to  a  person  of  unusual  means  or  rank,  and  rooms  1 1  and  12  and 
8  and  9  as  very  small  and  by  comparison  very  modest  separate  houses. 
It  is  regrettable  that  the  north  end  of  room  12  in  Level  III:2C  was  de- 
stroyed by  erosion  and  later  constructions.  Area  13  is  almost  certainly 
outside  any  structure. 

In  Level  III:2B  the  "monumental"  house  underwent  some  alterations. 
By  Level  III:2A  it  was  no  longer  so  impressive  and  the  whole  room  and 
entrance  arrangement  on  the  east  had  been  markedly  changed  (Fig.  23). 
The  west  side  of  the  building  remained  unaltered  in  Level  IIL2B,  but  by 
Level  III:2A  it  had  undergone  some  reconstruction.  Room  12  (in  111:2 A 
room  15)  was  much  smaller,  and  no  longer  had  a  stone  pavement,  and 
the  doorway  to  the  west  was  blocked.  A  large  grain  storage  bin  had  been 
added  in  the  northeast  corner  of  room  11  (in  IIL2A  room  16). 

Turning  to  the  western  half  of  the  Deep  Sounding  and  Ops.  Bl,  B2, 
B3,  CI,  C2  and  C3  we  find  that  the  structural  remains  are  best  discussed 
in  terms  of  Level  III  :2A  (Fig.  23).  There  were  only  two  constructional 
phases  in  this  area;  nothing  was  found  which  could  be  specifiically  corre- 
lated with  the  Level  IIL2B  changes  in  the  east  half  of  the  sounding.  Varia- 
tions between  the  two  III:2C  and  IIL2A  phases  involve  only  relatively 
minor  alterations  in  wall  configurations,  some  widening  and  strengthening 
of  walls,  and  changes  in  some  of  the  minor  features  on  floors. 

Here  in  Level  IIL2A  we  have  the  remains  of  at  least  three  and  per- 
haps four  houses.  Rooms  18  and  19  probably  define  one  house.  The  en- 
trance to  the  house  was  from  the  east  from  the  unexcavated  area  of  square 
A3.  Just  to  the  right  of  the  door  before  one  entered  were  two  clay  grain 
storage  bins.  A  bench  was  in  the  northeast  corner  of  room  19.  A  doorway 

22 


to  the  north  gave  access  to  room  18,  which  was  large  and  may  possibly 
have  had  a  single  wooden  column  standing  on  a  flat  stone  base  to  support 
the  roof.  A  large  patch  of  stone  pavement  ran  up  against  the  west  wall. 
Low  benches  fronted  parts  of  the  north  and  east  walls,  which  had  been 
considerably  rebuilt  and  strengthened  since  Level  III:2C.  Built  into  the 
wall  in  the  northwest  corner  of  the  room  was  a  square  mud  plastered, 
storage  bin. 

Rooms  20  and  21  may  have  been  parts  of  a  second  house,  most  of 
which  lay  to  the  south  beyond  the  area  excavated.  Two  typical  Period  III 
clay  grain  storage  bins  were  found  in  room  21  against  the  north  wall. 
Rooms  22  and  24,  and  perhaps  rooms  23  and  25  as  well,  formed  another 
house.  Certainly  rooms  22  and  24  describe  a  constructional  unit  and,  more 
important,  are  most  interesting  in  terms  of  the  several  features  found  in 
them.  Two  distinct  hearth  areas  were  found  in  room  22.  The  doorway 
between  rooms  22  and  24,  probably  at  one  time  wider  than  it  appears  in 
Level  III: 2 A,  was  paved  with  stones.  Beginning  in  the  doorway  and  run- 
ning north  along  the  west  face  of  the*  long  east  wall  was  a  rather  irregularly 
shaped  low  bench  in  which,  in  room  24,  was  a  raised  ceramic  hearth.  An- 
other large  hearth  area  lay  at  the  north  end  of  the  bench.  The  whole  of 
this  area  was  much  burned  and  covered  with  an  ash  deposit  (note  the 
large  ash  deposit  labelled  stratum  8M  in  the  Master  Section,  Fig.  18). 

Two  large,  well  preserved  clay  grain  storage  bins  were  set  against  the 
north  wall  of  room  24  (PL  XV).  Just  to  the  west  of  these  bins,  cut  back 
in  part  into  the  north  wall,  was  another  raised  hearth.  In  front  of  the  bins, 
sunk  in  the  floor  of  the  room,  was  another  hearth,  and  just  to  the  south- 
east of  it  was  a  large  but  shallow  hole  in  the  floor.  Again  the  area  was 
heavily  burned  and  covered  with  much  ash.  Immediately  west  of  the  cir- 
cular floor  hearth  was  a  pair  of  walls  that  looked  very  much  as  though 
they  define  some  kind  of  elaborate  entrance  to  a  room  to  the  east  beyond 
the  excavated  area.  Room  23,  which  could  have  been  part  of  this  com- 
plex entered  from  the  east,  also  contained  a  bench  and  a  hearth.  Room  25 
may  have  been  a  part  of  the  small  building,  again  entered  from  the  east. 
It  is  probably  not  associated  with  room  24  since  the  stone  foundations  un- 
covered in  Level  IIL2C  showed  that  it  did  not  share  a  party  wall  with 
room  24.  A  hearth  lay  in  the  southeast  corner  of  room  25,  there  was  a 
circular  hearth  sunk  in  the  floor  in  the  centre  of  the  room,  with  a  pot  set 
in  the  floor  nearby  and  a  patch  of  stone  pavement  against  the  south  wall. 

The  hearths  in  rooms  22,  23  and  25  can  easily  be  explained  in  terms 
of  the  winter  climate  of  central  western  Iran.  Another  explanation  must  be 
sought,  however,  for  the  complex  of  hearths  in  room  24.  One  suspects  we 
are  here  dealing  with  some  kind  of  industrial  activity,  most  probably  bread 
making  on  a  fairly  grand  scale,  since  we  have  two  large  grain  storage  bins 
associated  with  no  less  than  four  separate  hearths.  Perhaps  this  is  some 
kind  of  a  baker's  shop  serving  several  households  or  even  a  sizable  seg- 
ment of  the  whole  village. 

Room  29,  which  was  floored  with  a  stone  pavement  over  a  large  area, 
had  a  hearth  against  the  south  wall  and  large  pot  sunk  in  the  floor,  and 
was  almost  certainly  part  of  still  another  complex  of  rooms  to  the  west 
and  north. 

23 


Level  111:4:  Only  the  uppermost  configuration  of  this  level  is  discussed 
here,  Level  III:4A  (Fig.  21).  The  dominant  feature  in  the  eastern  part 
of  the  Deep  Sounding  in  this  level  is  the  street,  "Avenue  Road"  or  area  1, 
running  at  an  angle  across  the  southeast  corner  of  the  area  excavated  (PI. 
XVI).  This  street  is  a  major  connecting  link  between  the  architecture  of 
Level  111:4  and  that  of  the  several  stages  of  Level  111:5,  for  it  remained  in 
use  throughout  all  of  those  building  phases.  It  was  the  area  which  filled 
with  wash  and  trash  during  the  occupation  of  Level  111:3  and  only  ceased 
to  function  as  a  street  in  Level  111:2,  though  even  then  the  memory  of  it 
may  have  lingered  in  the  alignment  of  the  corridor  entrance  of  the  "monu- 
mental" structure  of  that  level. 

Four  passages  go  north  off  "Avenue  Road".  Starting  at  the  east  side 
of  the  Deep  Sounding,  two  thresholds  in  stone  lead  from  a  jog  or  widening 
in  the  street  into  rooms  2  and  3.  The  latter  room,  with  parts  of  its  floor 
paved  in  stone  and  a  rather  odd  niche  in  its  north  wall,  must  be  part  of  a 
larger  structure  to  the  east  which  remains  unexcavated.  Room  2,  with  two 
benches  and  patches  of  stone  paved  floor,  is  hard  to  see  as  an  entity  unto 
itself,  and  may  have  functioned  as  some  kind  of  a  small  guard  room 
oriented  to  the  entrance  into  the  house  of  which  room  3  is  a  part.  Of 
room  4  we  know  nothing  sensible  as  yet. 

Area  6  is  another  street,  a  small  alleyway  paved  in  stone  sloping  up 
from  "Avenue  Road"  to  a  flight  of  three  stone  steps  leading  into  room  5, 
which  could  have  been  a  one  room  house  (PI.  XVII).  A  clay  grain  stor- 
age bin  stands  against  the  west  wall.  A  low  bench  in  the  northwest  corner, 
of  the  room  abuts  a  raised  rectangular  storage  bin  also  against  the  west 
wall.  At  the  east  end  of  the  bench,  backed  against  a  small  wall  stub,  is  a 
hearth.  Another  bench  which  ran  along  the  east  wall  has  been  badly  dam- 
aged by  a  large  pit  cut  from  later  levels. 

Immediately  to  the  west  of  room  5  and  area  6  is  perhaps  one  of  the 
more  interesting  structural  complexes  yet  recovered  from  Period  III  (PI. 
XVIII).  Area  7  is  a  paved  terrace  standing  above  the  level  of  "Avenue 
Road",  defined  on  its  south  side  by  a  stone  retaining  wall  and  on  its  west 
side  by  a  stone  and  mud  brick  retaining  wall.  There  was  no  evidence  for 
any  free-standing  wall  along  the  south  or  west  sides  of  area  7.  Area  15  is 
another  alleyway,  again  as  in  the  case  of  area  6  paved  with  stone  and 
leading  up  to  the  north  to  a  flight  of  three  steps  up  into  area  14.  This  latter 
area  probably  should  also  be  seen  as  a  street,  or  rather  as  a  widening  at 
the  end  of  the  area  1 5  alleyway,  off  of  which  are  two  doorways,  one  lead- 
ing to  area  24,  the  other  to  area  10.  There  is  some  evidence  to  suggest  that 
area  10  was  an  open  courtyard.  It  is  also  paved  with  flat  stone  over  much 
of  its  surface.  In  the  northwest  corner  of  the  courtyard  is  a  very  small 
room,  the  doorway  of  which  is  partially  blocked  by  a  large  pot  set  in  the 
surface.  Through  the  room  runs  a  drain,  the  terminus  of  which  lies  some- 
where to  the  north  and  is  eroded  away.  One  is  tempted,  of  course,  to  see 
this  room  as  an  outhouse  or  privay;  it  is  in  the  same  location  in  the  court- 
yard as  are  privies  in  Near  Eastern  village  houses  today. 

There  are  two  ways  out  of  courtyard  10  to  the  south.  One,  at  the  east 
side  of  the  area,  leads  down  five  stone  steps  to  an  alleyway  which  even- 

24 


tually  reaches  the  stone  paved  terrace,  area  7  described  above.  The  other 
leads  across  a  fairly  level  threshold  into  room  9,  which  is  elaborately  paved 
with  stone.  From  room  9  a  sloping  ramp-like  pavement  leads  farther  south 
into  room  8.  Two  exits  lead  out  of  room  8;  one  west  onto  the  stairs  in 
area  15,  the  other  east  into  the  alleyway  leading  to  area  7.  In  a  large  niche 
in  the  north  wall  of  room  8  is  a  three-level,  waist-high  platform,  lowest 
at  the  west  end. 

All  of  the  walls  of  room  8  have  been  burned  brick-red  by  a  fierce  con- 
flagration which  had  destroyed  the  room.  The  red  debris  of  this  fire  covered 
the  whole  of  the  northwest  quadrant  of  Op.  A2,  and  at  first  led  us  to  ex- 
pect a  major  burned  level  over  a  much  wider  area  (in  places  the  burned 
deposit  was  over  1.50  metres  deep).  Not  so.  The  burning  was  confined  al- 
most entirely  to  room  8  and  was  associated  with  some  special  activity  con- 
ducted there,  or  with  some  special  material  stored  there.  The  fire  was  cer- 
tainly a  disaster,  but  was  contained  and  localized.  Eventually  a  detailed 
analysis  of  the  small  finds  of  this  complex  of  rooms  may  give  some  ex- 
planation of  the  special  use  to  which  it  was  put.  As  a  start  for  speculation, 
one  is  tempted  to  see  it  as  some  kind  of  shop. 

It  is  not  hard  to  visualize  a  fat  merchant  sitting  on  the  platform  of 
area  7  under  a  cloth  or  canvas  shade  selling  his  wares  to  the  public  passing 
along  "Avenue  Road".  His  stock  of  goods  is  perhaps  stored  in  room  8,  or 
his  assistant  is  there  manufacturing  whatever  is  being  sold  out  front.  Be- 
hind is  an  open  courtyard  where  goods  could  be  received  and,  in  clement 
weather,  also  stored.  Room  13  might  be  nothing  more  than  a  corridor  of 
some  kind  leading  to  a  complex  of  rooms  now  lost  down  the  north  face 
of  the  Citadel  mound  which  perhaps  was  our  merchant's  private  living 
quarters. 

The  separate  entrance  from  the  alleyway  of  area  14  into  room  24  sug- 
gests that  rooms  24,  25  and  26  form  a  distinct  establishment.  Room  24 
has  a  complex  hearth  in  the  northwest  corner.  It  leads  to  room  26,  which 
is  here  much  smaller  than  it  was  in  Level  III:4B.  Room  26  has  a  bench 
against  the  west  wall,  a  bench  projecting  into  the  room  from  the  east  wall, 
and  north  of  the  latter  feature  a  very  complex  series  of  hearths,  some 
raised  and  some  at  floor  level.  Room  25  was  difficult  to  define  thanks  to 
later  erosion,  and  we  have  no  idea  whether  it  was  really  part  of  the  same 
building  as  rooms  24  and  26. 

Areas  17  and  19  do  not  seem  to  make  a  great  deal  of  sense.  Room 
17  might  be  a  very  small  shop  or  store  room.  Area  18  cannot  be  anything 
other  than  a  wide  gap  between  two  walls  constructed  at  different  times. 

Area  19  was  an  afterthought  carved  out  of  a  once  larger  area  14  by 
the  construction  of  the  little  curtain  wall  which  defines  it  on  the  north  side. 

Room  22  and  23  define  another  house.  Entrance  was  gained  to  the 
complex  from  room  (area?)  20  to  the  south.  Room  21  could  belong  to 
this  complex  or  to  another  house  to  the  south  beyond  the  area  excavated. 
Room  22  had  patches  of  stone  pavement  on  the  floor,  two  holes  in  the 
floor  perhaps  for  holding  pots,  and  a  hearth  against  the  south  wall.  At 
some  point  in  the  life  of  the  structure  the  doorway  between  rooms  22  and 
23  was  blocked,  making  access  to  the  latter  possible  only  from  the  roof 
or  the  second  floor. 

25 


The  floor  of  room  23  was  carefully  paved  with  stone,  and  a  line  of 
stones  against  the  west  wall  may  have  originally  been  a  foundation  for  a 
mud  plaster  bench  which  was  destroyed  before  excavation.  On  the  pave- 
ment of  this  room,  crushed  flat  by  the  heavy  rubble  debris  which  filled  the 
room  to  a  height  of  almost  2  metres,  was  the  skeleton  of  a  man  perfectly 
preserved  except  that  the  whole  of  his  right  leg  and  half  of  his  pelvis  were 
missing.  (PL  XIX).  No  fragments  of  the  missing  bones  were  found  in  the 
debris.  A  crushed  body,  the  rubble  nature  of  the  debris,  the  heights  to 
which  the  walls  in  this  area  were  preserved  and  the  quantities  of  complete 
but  smashed  pottery  vessels  found  all  suggest  that  some  kind  of  violent 
destruction  was  involved  in  the  final  abandonment  of  Level  III:4A.  It 
could  have  been  another  earthquake  similar  to  the  one  postulated  as  having 
destroyed  Level  III: 2 A,21  and  such  an  explanation  might  also  provide  us 
with  a  cause  for  the  violent  fire  in,  and  the  abandonment  of,  room  8. 

Rooms  29  and  30  form  another  house,  with  the  entrance  again  to  the 
south.  Area  31  may  be  nothing  more  than  a  space  between  walls  or  it  may 
be  a  small  room  of  another  structure.  A  large  pit  (Master  Section,  Fig.  18, 
Ops.  C2  and  B2,  st.  11H)  sunk  from  later  levels  destroyed  much  in  this 
area.  A  rather  elaborate  two-stepped  mud  brick  bench  or  platform  ran 
along  part  of  the  east  wall  of  room  30.  At  the  south  end  of  the  platform 
was  a  raised  mud  brick  counter-like  structure  in  which  were  two  rather 
deep  holes  of  uncertain  function.  A  good  deal  of  the  east  wall  of  the  room 
had  been  either  intentionally  cut  or  accidentally  worn  away,  creating  a 
curved  niche  at  the  back  of  the  platform.  To  the  north,  just  in  front  of 
the  doorway  into  room  29,  a  small  curtain  wall  projected  westward  into 
the  room  and  defined  the  south  side  of  a  hearth.  At  some  point  while  this 
platform  and  hearth  were  still  in  use  the  doorway  between  rooms  30  and 
29  was  blocked  with  mud  bricks.  In  room  29  two  hearths  were  built  along 
the  east  wall  against  the  blocking.  An  irregular  low  bench  ran  along  the 
south  wall,  against  which  was  another  hearth.  Along  the  west  wall  was  a 
raised  platform  or  counter  at  the  south  end  of  which  was  a  large  rectangu- 
lar bin  (PL  XX).  Once  again  we  seem  to  have  evidence  for  activites  more 
elaborate  and  complex  than  what  we  might  expect  to  be  associated  with 
a  simple  domestic  structure. 

Room  32  was  part  of  a  structure  most  of  which  lay  to  the  south  and 
west  beyond  the  excavated  area.  No  direct  communication  existed  at  this 
level  between  rooms  30,  32  and  33.  Against  the  north  wall  of  room  32 
was  a  very  elaborate  hearth  and  low  platform  which  had  undergone  several 
rebuildings  and  alterations  in  shape  during  the  lifetime  of  Level  111:4  (PL 
XXI).  Patches  of  stone  pavement  were  found  in  the  northeast  corner  of 
the  room.  Room  33  was  part  of  a  complex  the  remainder  of  which  lay  to 
the  west  outside  our  sounding.  Once  again  the  number  of  hearths  suggest 
some  unusual  function.  There  was  an  elaborate  hearth  in  the  northeast 
corner,  a  large  open  hearth  area  against  the  east  wall,  a  small  hearth  in 
the  southeast  corner  which  had  eaten  deeply  into  the  walling,  a  large 
hearth  area  against  the  south  wall  which  had  also  done  much  damage  to 
the  wall,  and  a  still  larger  hearth  area  against  the  south  wall  along  the  balk. 
A  small   patch  of  stone  pavement  lay  just  east  of  that  hearth.   Large 

26 


amounts  of  ash  and  burned  earth  were  in  the  deposit  filling  the  room  and 
resting  on  the  floors. 

Any  detailed  discussion  now  of  rooms  27,  28  and  34  would  be  pre- 
mature. Suffice  it  to  say  that  the  structural  and  stratigraphic  history  of  this 
area  is  very  complex.  The  unusually  thick  walls  are  the  results  of:  1)  an 
unwillingness  on  the  part  of  the  builders  to  ever  use  a  party  wall,  and  2) 
several  rebuildings,  each  of  which  resulted  in  a  widening  and  strengthen- 
ing of  the  original  structure.  One  might  even  wonder  whether  successive 
builders  were  specifically  planning  for  protection  against  earthquakes.  The 
wall  between  rooms  28  and  34  is  particularly  interesting  in  this  regard. 
There  are  actually  three  separate  walls  involved.  All  had  stone  founda- 
tions. The  western  and  centre  walls  were  built  first  and  were  at  least  in 
part  contemporary.  There  was  a  gap  between  them  which  was  tightly 
packed  with  small  river  cobbles.  The  walls  and  packing  were  preserved  to 
a  height  of  just  under  2  metres.  An  explanation  for  the  stones  is  that  they 
provided  a  good  drainage  channel  for  water  running  off  the  roofs  of  the 
two  structures  and  prevented  erosion  of  the  wall  faces.  Late  in  the  life  of 
the  structures  involved,  the  easternmost  wall  was  built  against  the  centre 
wall  creating  a  still  more  massive  block  of  walling  and  sharply  reducing 
the  size  of  room  28.  The  wall  between  rooms  33  and  34  was  also  a  double, 
non-party  wall. 

In  sum,  Level  III:4A  is  architecturally  rather  unusual  and,  in  several 
respects,  often  something  more  than  a  collection  of  simple  peasant  village 
houses.  The  only  general  pattern  to  the  architectural  layout  that  strikes 
one  immediately  is  a  preference  for  two-room  buildings  with  the  rooms  one 
behind  the  other:  e.g.  rooms  8  and  9,  22  and  23,  30  and  29.  The  pattern 
is  not  invariable,  however,  since  it  would  seem  that  room  5  represents  a 
single  structural  unit. 

Level  111:5:  Altogether  at  least  five  separate  building  phases  of  Level  111:5 
have  been  defined.  Only  one  of  these,  the  second  from  the  bottom,  Level 
III:5D,  is  discussed  here  (Fig.  20).  In  Level  IIL5D  we  are  sufficiently  re- 
moved in  time  from  Level  IIL4A  that  there  is  little  obvious  relationship 
between  this  level  and  the  one  just  discussed  in  detail.  Were  we  in  a  posi- 
tion, however,  to  present  the  whole  sequence  of  rebuildings  in  Level  111:5 
and  the  earliest  configuration  of  Level  111:4  (IIL4B),  a  direct  architec- 
tural development  from  the  one  to  the  other  would  be  apparent.  The  one 
major  feature  that  does  link  Level  III : 5D  to  Level  IIL4A  is  "Avenue 
Road"  cutting  across  the  southeast  corner  of  the  Deep  Sounding.  This  is 
area  1  on  the  IIL5D  plan.  Throughout  Level  111:5  and  in  Level  111:4 
there  were  houses  or  a  house  which  fronted  on  this  street. 

At  the  west  end  of  the  sounding  in  Ops.  CI  and  C2  we  have  in  Level 
IIL5D  a  complex  of  rooms  that  seems  to  belong  to  a  very  large  structure, 
most  of  which  is  farther  to  the  west  beyond  the  area  excavated.  Area  24 
could  have  been  a  courtyard;  the  deposit  was  enigmatic  on  this  point. 
Rooms  25  and  26  were  small  rooms  of  uncertain  function.  In  the  north- 
east corner  of  area  24,  along  its  east  wall,  was  a  bench-like  structure  with 
two  distinct  units  divided  by  a  small  partition.  There  was  some  evidence 

27 


of  burning  in  the  area,  but  not  enough  to  suggest  that  the  bench  had  actu- 
ally been  used  as  a  raised  hearth.  The  north  wall  of  this  complex  was 
actually  two  walls  built  against  each  other  making  a  single  wall  of  sufficient 
width  to  suggest  that  it  might  have  originally  had  a  defensive  function. 

Part  of  this  wall  continued  east  and  formed  the  northern  limits  of  area 
23,  which  could  also  have  been  unroofed.  Only  small  patches  of  good 
floor  surface  were  found,  and  a  large  mass  of  semi-articulated  brick  work 
and  debris,  typical  of  the  kind  of  material  that  accumulates  in  open  occu- 
pied areas,  was  found  in  the  center  of  the  space.  A  bench  ran  along  part 
of  the  north  wall,  around  the  northeast  corner  and  along  the  east  wall.  A 
small  mud  brick  bin  was  built  against  the  face  of  the  east  wall,  and  farther 
south  along  the  same  wall  was  another  bench.  Room  22  may  have  be- 
longed to  the  same  structure.  The  history  of  the  several  rebuildings  in  this 
area,  particularly  those  associated  with  the  north-south  wall  separating 
areas  23  and  24,  suggests  that  despite  the  common  north  wall  these  two 
areas  were  parts  of  separate  structural  complexes. 

In  somewhat  modified  form  the  massive  north  wall  of  areas  24  and  23 
continued  into  the  eastern  half  of  the  Deep  Sounding.  North  of  that  wall 
in  Ops.  Bl,  BOl,  Al  and  AOl  sufficient  evidence  of  wall  stubs  and  par- 
tial rooms  was  recovered  to  indicate  that  there  was  once  a  complex  of 
structures  in  this  area.  Thus  if  this  north  wall  had  ever  performed  a  de- 
fensive function  it  could  have  done  so  only  in  Op.  C2  and  further  to  the 
east. 

It  is  tempting  to  see  most  of  the  rooms  in  the  east  half  of  the  sounding 
as  part  of  a  single  building  complex.  Areas  21  and  7  were  almost  certainly 
both  open  to  the  air,  the  former  perhaps  being  little  more  than  an  open 
square  at  the  west  end  of  "Avenue  Road','  the  latter  the  courtyard  of  a 
house.  Room  12  can  be  interpreted  best  as  an  entrance  hall  leading  from 
the  street  into  the  inner  courtyard.  Rooms  8,  9,  10,  11,  13  and  14  would 
be  living  rooms.  Room  8  is  of  particular  interest  for  what  was  found  in 
it:  a  total  of  nine  pottery  vessels  smashed  or  whole  on  and  in  the  floor 
and  two  large  quern  fragments  on  the  floor  (PI.  XXII).  Room  15,  with 
its  hearth,  and  rooms  16  and  20  all  open  off  of  the  same  courtyard.  Room 
20  has  a  stone  paved  floor  and  a  bench  against  the  south  wall.  We  do  not 
know  how  access  was  gained  to  room  19,  or,  indeed,  whether  any  such 
space  was  large  enough  to  have  functioned  as  a  proper  room.  Both  rooms 
6  and  17  could  have  been  part  of  this  same  complex  (they  were  in  an- 
other building  phase).  Rooms  2,  3,  4  and  5  were,  on  the  other  hand,  al- 
most certainly  parts  of  another  structural  complex  which  lay  to  the  east 
beyond  the  area  excavated. 

Looking  to  the  future,  our  evidence  indicates  that:  1)  there  is  at  least 
one  lower  phase  of  Level  111:5,  III:5E,  which  remains  to  be  completely 
cleared;  2)  there  is  at  least  one  further  building  level  below  that  in  Period 
III  which  may  prove  to  be  Level  III:5F,  but  could  be  Level  111:6;  and  3) 
in  the  southern  third  of  the  Deep  Sounding  there  may  be  yet  a  third  level 
of  Period  III  date,  for  a  small  test  pit  in  Op.  A2  showed  that  the  Period 
III  deposit  was  much  deeper  there  than  at  the  north  edge  of  the  Deep 
Sounding. 

28 


POTTERY  AND  SMALL  FINDS 

The  typology  for  the  Period  III  pottery  presented  in  our  earlier  report  is 
still  valid  and  nothing  need  be  added  here.  We  have  continued  to  keep 
complete  sherd  counts  on  all  pottery  found  in  Ops.  Al,  A2,  AA1  and 
AA2,  but  have  been  forced  to  count  only  diagnostic  sherds  from  other 
operations.  The  statistics  from  these  counts  are  still  being  assembled  and 
manipulated,  and  arc  not  available  for  publication  at  this  time.  We  are 
also  as  yet  unable  to  offer  any  firm,  publishable  suggestions  for  how  the 
Period  III  ceramic  sequence  might  profitably  be  sub-divided  typologically. 
Suffice  it  to  remark  now  that:  1)  such  sub-divisions  certainly  are  emerging 
from  our  records  and  analysis;  2)  we  have  yet  to  be  able  to  duplicate  the 
typological  sequence  worked  out  for  Tepe  Giyan,  though  there  is  some 
evidence  from  Godin  III  to  suggest  that  vessels  painted  in  the  Giyan  II 
style  appear  only  in  the  upper  strata  of  the  Period  III  deposit;22  3) 
painted  Coarse  Ware  and  red-slipped  varieties  of  both  Coarse  and  Common 
Ware  are  strikingly  less  common  in  the  earlier  strata  of  Period  III;  and 
4)  in  the  lowest  strata  of  Period  III  thus  excavated  a  painted  ware  appears 
which  is  noticeably  different  from  that  found  in  the  upper  levels,  and 
which  cannot  easily  be  paralleled  in  the  ceramics  from  Tepe  Giyan:  e.g. 
Fig.  29,  Nos.  5  and  6.  This  pottery  is,  however,  both  stylistically  and 
technically  related  to  the  later  Godin  III  painted  wares. 

A  selection  of  the  numerous  small  finds  from  Period  III  is  presented 
in  Figures  33  to  36. 


Period  II 


STRATIFICATION 

Very  little  new  information  has  come  to  hand  about  the  stratigraphic  rela- 
tionship of  Periods  II  and  III,  since  in  1969  and  1971  in  most  of  our 
work  on  the  Period  II  structure  we  never  went  below  the  Period  II  deposit. 
In  the  excavation  of  Level  III:2A  in  Ops.  B3  and  C3,  which  involved  dig- 
ging through  the  floor  of  the  large  columned  hall,  we  were  able  to  confirm 
that  the  cutting  made  in  Period  II  times  to  create  a  large  level  surface  for 
the  columned  hall  had,  in  fact,  completely  destroyed  the  remains  of  Level 
III:  1  in  this  area  and  indeed  had  somewhat  disturbed  the  Level  III:2A 
deposit.  Thus  once  again  the  actual  stratigraphic  articulation  of  Period  II 
and  III  was  destroyed  by  the  Period  II  builders. 

We  have  confirmed  that  there  are  two  distinct  stratigraphic  phases  to 
the  central  section  of  the  Period  II  building;  we  suspected  this  to  be  the 
case  at  the  time  of  our  last  report.23  We  know  now,  however,  that  the 
entire  building  had  a  fairly  complicated  history  and  was  not  planned,  laid 
out  and  built  as  a  whole.  Since  the  evidence  for  that  history  is  as  much 
architectural  as  it  is  stratigraphic,  it  is  discussed  below  along  with  the 
architectural  description. 

29 


In  terms  of  the  actual  placement  of  the  building,  the  evidence  is  now 
conclusive  that  the  Period  II  settlers  were  faced  with  the  problem  of  put- 
ting their  structure  on  a  mound  which  already  conformed  to  the  shape  of 
Godin  Tepe  as  we  found  it  prior  to  excavation.  That  is  to  say,  the  Upper 
Citadel  was  formed  in  Period  III  times  and  is  not  only  the  result  of  the 
debris  and  collapse  of  the  Period  II  fortified  manor  house.  On  both  the 
east-west  and  the  north-south  axis  the  Period  II  builders  were  forced  to 
cut  away  Period  III  deposits  in  order  to  create  level  surfaces  on  which  to 
build  (Figs.  38  and  39).  It  is  also  now  stratigraphically  clear  that  the 
principal  period  of  erosion  along  the  north  face  of  the  Citadel  Mound  oc- 
curred between  the  Period  III  and  Period  II  occupations.  The  Period  II 
fortification,  therefore,  was  specifically  set  so  as  to  stand  at  the  steep  edge 
of  a  high  mound  which  already  stood  20  or  more  metres  above  the  river 
bed. 

ARCHITECTURE 

Dealing  with  the  west  end  of  the  fortified  manor  house  first,  we  have  dis- 
covered that  the  west  wall  of  the  large  columned  hall  was  once  the  west 
wall  of  the  entire  structure  and  that  there  was  a  tower  (tower  13)  at  the 
northwest  corner  of  the  building  entered  by  a  doorway  leading  off  of  the 
columned  hall  (Fig.  37  and  PL  XXII).  The  north  fortification  wall  be- 
tween towers  5  and  13  has  two  constructional  phases,  as  suggested  in  our 
earlier  report.  In  its  original  configuration  it  was  of  regular  width  and  un- 
doubtedly had  regularly  spaced  recesses  and  buttresses  along  its  face.  Later, 
perhaps  at  the  same  time  that  the  small  columned  hall  was  constructed  to 
the  west,  the  wall  was  widened  by  an  irregular  width  of  brick  facing  which 
masked  the  original  junction  of  tower  13  and  the  wall,  and  blocked  two 
of  the  arrow  slots  and  one  of  the  recesses  in  the  east  wall  of  tower  13. 
The  line  of  the  original  fortification  wall  is  the  dotted  line  shown  in  Fig.  37. 
Also  at  the  later  date  the  smaller  columned  hall  was  added  west  of  the 
large  hall.  This  columned  hall  has  not  been  completely  cleared  of  debris, 
since  the  deposit  is  deep  and  apparently  sterile.  Enough  of  the  floor  has 
been  exposed,  however,  to  reveal  two  unshaped  stone  column  bases  and 
to  permit  the  reconstruction  of  a  plan  of  two  rows  of  four  columns.  The 
room  had  plastered  mud  brick  benches  on  at  least  three  sides.  The  break 
in  the  bench  against  the  east  wall  is  unexplained.  Tower  1 5  was  discovered 
at  the  northwest  corner  of  the  building.  It  was  entered  from  the  columned 
hall.  The  north  and  west  faces  of  this  tower,  and  the  west  face  of  the  west 
wall  of  the  small  columned  hall,  were  very  poorly  preserved.  Excavation 
was  possible  only  with  brushes.  The  relationship  of  this  wall  to  the  lower 
Period  III  deposit  was  such  as  to  make  it  certain  that  the  Period  II  build- 
ing never  extended  farther  to  the  west.  The  east  face  of  tower  15  shows 
buttresses,  recesses  and  arrow  slots  of  the  expected  type,  and  we  may  as- 
sume a  similar  configuration  for  its  north  and  west  faces  and  probably  for 
the  west  face  of  the  west  wall  of  the  small  columned  hall.  Similar  buttresses 
and  recesses  once  extended  along  the  west  face  of  the  west  wall  of  the  large 
columned  hall  when  it  was  the  outside  wall  of  the  building.  The  filling  in 
of  those  recesses  apparently  also  involved  some  other  alterations  to  that 

30 


wall  which  perhaps  in  part  explain  how  the  odd  column  base  in  the  north- 
west corner  of  the  large  columned  hall  excavated  in  1967  came  to  be  cov- 
ered over  with  the  brick-work  of  this  wall.24  The  southern  limits  of  the 
small  columned  hall,  like  those  of  the  larger  hall  to  the  cast,  are  eroded 
away  and  even  careful  brush  work  has  failed  to  reveal  structural  remains 
that  can  be  articulated  into  a  meaningful  plan. 

Turning  east  from  the  large  columned  hall  we  come  first  to  area  7,  8, 
6  and  3.  The  several  features  in  this  area,  some  of  which  were  described 
in  our  last  report,  may  very  possibly  not  be  part  of  the  original  Period  II 
structure.  There  is  some  evidence  to  suggest  that  this  large  rectangular 
area  was  originally  another  columned  room.  Only  excavations  in  1973  in 
the  centre  of  this  area,  as  yet  untouched,  can  provide  the  data  needed  to 
support  this  suggestion.  In  the  meantime,  it  is  probably  better  to  leave 
open  the  possibility  that  the  features  of  this  area  are  chronologically  re- 
lated to  the  "squatter's  occupation"  of  the  fortified  manor  house  discussed 
in  greater  detail  below.  In  any  case,  in  its  main  outline  this  rectangular  area 
was  part  of  the  original  Period  II  construction  and  is  contemporary  with 
the  large  columned  hall  (Fig.  40,  Stage  1 ),  The  east  wall  of  this  area  ori- 
ginally had  buttresses,  recesses  and  arrow  slots,  some  of  which  were  filled 
in  with  laid  brick  when  additions  to  the  structure  were  made  to  the  east. 
The  south  wall  also  had  buttresses  and  recesses,  and,  we  may  assume,  ar- 
row slots,  though  the  wall  was  not  preserved  to  a  height  sufficient  for  us 
to  be  certain  on  the  latter  point.  The  north  wall  between  towers  4  and  5 
was  originally  published  without  recesses  and  buttresses,  and  we  tended  to 
associate  the  one  recess  that  is  shown  on  the  earlier  published  plan  with 
an  Islamic  burial  that  had  cut  into  the  wall  at  that  point.25  The  wall  was 
destroyed  in  1967  in  the  opening  of  the  Deep  Sounding.  When  later  exca- 
vations proved  that  it  was  the  standard  pattern  for  all  outside  walls  of  the 
Period  II  fortification  to  have  buttresses,  recesses  and  arrow  slots,  we  were 
able  to  return  to  the  original  field  notes  which  dealt  with  the  section  of 
wall  between  towers  4  and  5  and  find  evidence  of  problems  and  anomalies 
which  indicated  that  we  had  chopped  through  the  buttresses  in  the  original 
excavation.  On  this  "textual"  evidence  we  have  felt  it  permissable  to  re- 
construct the  wall  as  shown  in  the  new  plan. 

The  large  columned  hall  and  the  rectangular  area  fronted  by  towers 
4  and  5  was  the  original  Period  II  construction.  The  first  addition  to  the 
east  onto  this  core  building  was  the  north  bank  of  magazines,  rooms  19  to 
24  and  26  (Fig.  40,  Stage  2).  It  was  our  discovery  in  1967  of  a  small 
segment  of  this  addition  which  led  us  to  postulate  an  earlier  phase  of  the 
Period  II  structure.20  We  now  know,  of  course,  that  in  fact  it  was  a  later 
phase.  The  main  north  fortification  wall  between  towers  4  and  17  was 
built  on  a  slightly  different  alignment  than  the  segment  between  towers  4 
and  5.  Again  we  have  regular  buttresses,  recesses  and  arrow  slots  (PI. 
XXIV).  Tower  17,  the  inner  room  of  which  remains  unexcavated,  was 
built  on  a  slightly  curving  socle,  and,  as  had  towers  4  and  5,  showed  clear 
evidence  of  collapse  and  rebuilding  (PI.  XXV).  The  stone  packing  around 
the  front  or  north  edge  of  the  tower  appears  to  be  secondary,  and  the  re- 
building is  on  a  different  alignment  from  the  original  walls  of  the  tower 

31 


(PI.  XXVI).  At  the  time  this  wing  was  added  to  the  building,  strong 
fortification  was  still  very  much  a  requirement  of  the  builders.  There  is 
stratigraphic  and  structural  evidence  from  along  the  north  face  of  this  sec- 
tion of  walling  which  suggests,  however,  that  the  military  aspects  of  our 
building  became  less  and  less  important. 

In  time  occupational  trash  and  architectural  debris  accumulated  against 
the  north  face  of  the  fortification  wall.  Eventually  the  entire  socle  was 
covered  and  the  debris  reached  part  way  up  the  actual  wall,  blocking  the 
lower  sections  of  the  arrow  slots.  In  due  time  the  wall  was  replastered. 
The  accumulated  deposit  was  not  cleared  away  from  the  base  of  the  wall, 
and  the  new  plaster  was  simply  spread  over  such  face  of  the  wall  as  was 
exposed.  A  second  stage  of  accumulation  then  began.  By  the  time  a  second 
coating  of  plaster  was  applied,  the  debris  had  in  places  accumulated  to 
the  point  where  several  of  the  arrow  slots  were  blocked  for  over  half 
their  length.  Yet  again  the  debris  was  not  cleared  away,  and  the  plaster 
was  applied  to  such  wall  face  as  was  still  exposed  (PI.  XXVIII).  Surely  if 
the  ruler  in  residence  had  still  been  seriously  concerned  with  matters  of 
defence,  he  would  have  taken  the  time  and  energy  to  have  the  debris 
cleared  away  from  in  front  of  the  wall  and  the  fortification  restored  to  its 
original  state  of  military  effectiveness. 

Rooms  19  to  24  of  this  addition,  all  reached  from  the  long  corridor, 
room  26,  may  not  have  been  part  of  the  original  construction.  One  should 
note  that  all  internal  walls  are  unbonded  and  that  several  of  the  walls 
separating  the  rooms  are  built  so  that  they  block  arrow  slots.  On  the  other 
hand,  the  arrow  slots  may  have  been  simply  built  one  to  each  recess  and 
buttress  regardless  of  what  was  planned  for  the  inside  of  the  building,  on 
the  theory  that  even  an  unusuable  arrow  slot  looks  threatening  to  an  at- 
tacking enemy. 

These  six  rooms  are  magazines  or  large  store  rooms.  There  is  some  evi- 
dence that  originally  they  were  not  closed  at  the  corridor  end.  The  small 
curtain  wall  across  the  south  end  of  room  19  is  perhaps  a  secondary  addi- 
tion, and  room  23  and  24  may  yet  prove  to  have  had  no  south  walls  at  all. 
In  the  case  of  room  21  the  small  doorway  which  gave  access  from  the  cor- 
ridor was  preserved  to  above  its  lintel  (PI.  XXVIII).  The  lintel  was  made 
from  two  large  rectangular  bricks  simply  propped  against  each  other  to 
form  a  pointed  arch.  The  doorway  itself  was  worn  smooth  on  both  sides 
and  on  the  threshold  from  people  (or  animals)  brushing  against  it  as  they 
passed  to  and  fro,  and  was  impractically  small.  A  normal  sized  man  had 
to  stoop  and  almost  double  himself  up  to  pass  through,  and  then  could  do 
so  only  by  putting  one  leg  through  the  doorway  sideways  as  though  going 
through  a  window.  This  suggests  that  the  function  of  these  rooms  was  such 
that  it  was  not  necessary  for  people  to  pass  in  and  out  of  them  with  any 
ease  or  regularity. 

The  rooms  themselves  have  so  far  proved  sterile  of  any  materials  asso- 
ciated with  the  actual  occupation  of  the  building;  rooms  23  and  24  have 
yet  to  be  emptied  to  floor  level.  Normally  one  would  expect  to  find  large 
pithoi  in  such  store  rooms.  Given  the  absence  of  any  such  vessels  and  the 
unusual  size  of  the  doorways,  it  is  tempting  to  wonder  if  we  do  not  here 

32 


have  something  more  like  grain  storage  bins  than  a  regular  magazine.  The 
doorways  to  some  of  the  rooms  give  the  impression  of  entrances  to  coal 
bins  or  silos.  Perhaps  grain  was  stored  here  with  the  whole  room  actually 
acting  as  the  container.  Equally  possible,  items  which  were  not  needed 
very  often  and  which  were  all  taken  away  at  the  time  the  building  was 
peacefully  abandoned,  (e.g,  weapons)  could  also  have  been  stored  here. 

Buttresses,  recesses  and  arrow  slots  are  found  on  the  outer  faces  of 
both  the  east  and  south  walls  of  this  wing,  indicating  once  again  that  for  a 
while  at  least  these  were  outside  walls.  In  due  time  a  second  bank  of  six 
magazines  or  store  rooms  was  added  to  the  south  (Fig.  40,  Stage  3;  PL 
XXIX).  Room  27  must  have  actually  functioned  primarily  as  a  corridor 
or  hallway  connecting  the  north  bank  of  magazines  with  the  central  wing 
of  the  structure  and  with  tower  34.  Rooms  28  to  32  were  store  rooms. 
Room  28  had,  however,  been  used  in  part  as  some  kind  of  habitation 
room.  A  small  curtain  wall  projected  from  its  east  wall  giving  a  little  pro- 
tection to  a  hearth  area  on  the  floor,  and  a  complete  vessel  and  fragments 
of  other  vessels  were  found  in  the  immediate  area  of  the  hearth.  Tower  34 
had  a  straight  wall  on  the  west  side  and  a  curving  wall  to  the  south  and 
east.  Once  again  we  know  that  the  south  and  west  walls  of  this  complex 
of  rooms  were  outside  fortification  walls,  for  they  had  buttresses,  recesses 
and  arrow  slots  (assumed  for  the  west  wall  since  it  was  preserved  only  to 
a  height  which  would  have  been  below  the  base  of  any  arrow  slots).  There 
may  have  originally  been  a  tower  at  the  southeast  corner  of  this  addition. 
Evidence  for  such,  however,  was  thoroughly  destroyed  when  the  very  mas- 
sive fortification  tower  enclosing  rooms  36  and  37  was  added  at  a  later 
date.  This  is  much  the  most  impressive  of  all  the  towers  on  the  building, 
for  its  south  wall  is  4  metres  thick  (PL  XXX).  This  suggests  that  the 
tower  was  unusually  high,  perhaps  projecting  well  above  the  highest  part 
of  the  building  and  functioning  as  a  watch  tower. 

By  this  time  our  building  had  developed  in  a  rather  pragmatic  way, 
growing  along  the  curving  steep  north  edge  of  the  Upper  Citadel  mound. 
Apparently  it  now  seemed  logical  to  fill  in  the  centre  section  between  the 
south  bank  of  magazines  and  the  large  columned  hall  (Fig.  4,  Stage  4). 
Right  angles  and  straight  walls  were,  however,  out  of  the  question  given 
the  existing  structure.  This,  combined  with  the  fact  that  the  walls  in  this 
area  are  very  poorly  preserved  and  that  the  whole  was  much  chopped  up 
by  a  later  "squatter  occupation",  has  meant  that  this  wing  is  not  as  intelli- 
gible as  one  would  like  and  may  not  become  so  even  when  excavations 
are  completed.  The  following  features  are  reasonably  clear  at  this  time 
(Figs.  42  and  37).  Room  39  was  a  long  corridor  linking  the  south  bank 
of  magazines  with  this  south  central  wing  and,  ultimately,  with  the  north 
central  wing  as  well.  Room  43  was  a  ramp  which  sloped  up  gently  to  the 
north  to  a  landing  which  led  into  area  44.  Another  means  of  access  to  the 
same  area  was  up  a  flight  of  stairs  in  area  42  (PL  XXXI).  The  whole  of 
area  44  was  probably  a  large  landing  of  some  kind  from  which  one  could 
go  north  into  area  3  or  on  up  a  further  flight  of  stairs  to  the  second  storey 
of  the  building.  All  of  the  structures  in  area  44  and  the  walling  east  of  the 
stairs  and  west  of  room  43  were  set  on  a  massive  stone  foundation.  This 

33 


would  seem  to  be  the  foundation  for  a  complicated  stair  system  to  the 
second  floor.  No  other  obvious  function  explains  satisfactorily  the  massive- 
ness  of  the  whole  construction.27  In  area  46  we  have  some  evidence  for 
three  and  perhaps  four  mud  brick  column  bases  and  what  appears  to  be 
an  elaborate  Period  II  hearth  against  one  wall.  Rooms  41  and  40  were  also 
part  of  the  south  central  wing  of  the  main  Period  II  structure.  The  wall 
defining  the  southern  limits  of  this  south-central  wing  was  also  part  of  the 
Phase  4  building.  It  is  interesting,  in  the  light  of  the  clear  evidence  in  the 
debris  and  plastering  of  the  north  fortification  suggesting  an  eventual  de- 
cline in  the  military  function  of  the  building,  to  observe  that  this  south  wall 
has  no  recesses  or  buttresses  and,  in  width  and  construction  style,  is  much 
the  weakest  outside  wall  of  the  structure. 

The  remaining  features  planned  in  this  area  are  all  related  to  Stage  5 
of  the  building,  the  "squatter  occupation"  (Figs.  41,  42  and  37).  At  some 
point  fairly  soon  after  the  fortified  manor  house  had  been  abandoned  by 
the  resident  "khan",  parts  of  the  structure  were  taken  over,  modified,  and 
used  for  purposes  which  one  suspects  were  more  mundane.  Changes  made 
in  the  ground  plan  included:  1)  blocking  the  doorway  between  corridor 
39  and  room  27;  2)  blocking  the  west  end  of  corridor  39;  3)  blocking  the 
ramp  in  area  43  at  top  and  bottom  and  eventually  filling  it  in  solidly  with 
brick  and  rubble;  4)  blocking  the  stairway  in  area  42;  5)  blocking  the 
doorway  between  the  north  and  south  central  wings;  6)  constructing  small 
curtain  walls  in  the  doorway  of  room  40;  7)  changing  one  of  the  recesses 
in  the  east  wall  of  room  40  into  what  appears  to  be  a  manger  (one  sus- 
pects that  in  the  "squatter  occupation"  room  40  was  used  for  an  animal 
pen);  8)  building  some  rather  strange  and  flimsy  stone  walls  in  area  45 
(PI.  XXXII);  9)  putting  a  hearth  in  the  northwest  corner  of  area  44  (PL 
XXXIII);  and  10)  actually  digging  out  the  centre  of  the  original  west 
wall  of  room  45  to  make  two  tiny  little  rooms,  in  one  of  which  there  was 
some  evidence  for  a  hearth.  As  noted  above,  the  flimsy  walls  in  areas  3, 
6,  7  and  8  may  yet  prove  also  to  be  part  of  the  "squatter  occupation". 

Clearly  not  "squatter"  additions  are  the  two  segments  of  walling  at  the 
extreme  east  end  of  the  building,  which  are  not  yet  completely  excavated. 
At  some  point  in  the  structure's  history  the  north  fortification  wall  was 
extended  still  farther  to  the  east,  and  room  33  was  added.  Chronologically, 
given  the  way  in  which  its  walls  mask  buttresses  and  arrow  slots,  it  would 
appear  that  room  33  was  added  after  the  south  bank  of  magazines  had 
been  in  use  for  a  time.  Area  25  must  at  one  time  have  been  closed  in,  but 
we  have  yet  to  locate  any  north-south  wall  to  the  east.  Further  excavations 
will  be  conducted  in  this  area  in  1973  as  well  as  in  the  unexcavated  seg- 
ment to  the  west  of  area  46. 

Thus,  in  summary,  the  structural  and  stratigraphic  history  of  the  Per- 
iod II  fortified  manor  house  is  as  follows.  First  the  large  columned  hall 
and  the  rectangular  area  to  the  east  were  constructed.  Second  to  be  built 
was  the  north  bank  of  magazines.  Then  came  the  south  bank  of  magazines. 
A  fourth  stage  was  the  south-centre  wing.  The  fifth  stage  was  the  "squatter 
occupation".  The  additions  of  the  small  columned  hall,  the  wall  between 
areas  18  and  25,  room  33  and  the  large  tower  defining  rooms  36  and  37 

34 


cannot  be  correlated  with  these  major  stages  in  the  growth  of  the  structure 
except  that  we  can  say  that  room  33  and  the  massive  south-eastern  watch 
tower  were  added  after  the  south  bank  of  magazines  had  been  in  use  for 
a  while. 

Certain  more  general  and  perhaps  more  speculative  conclusions  can  be 
deduced  from  these  architectural  and  stratigraphic  facts.  First,  there  is 
good  evidence  to  suggest  that  the  building  was  used  for  some  little  time 
before  it  was  peacefully  abandoned  and  turned  over  to  the  squatters.  Its 
complex  history  and  the  considerable  accumulation  of  trash  against  the 
fortification  wall  between  towers  4  and  1 7  support  this  contention.  Second, 
over  time  the  owner  of  the  building,  who  was  probably  a  local  "khan"  or 
prince  of  some  stature,  grew  in  both  political  power  and  wealth.  He  seemed 
to  find  it  necessary  to  increase  significantly  his  storage  space  on  at  least 
two  occasions,  as  well  as  to  add  the  small  columned  hall  to  the  public  part 
of  his  palace.  Third,  Stages  1  to  3  of  the  construction  and  the  addition  of 
the  small  columned  hall,  the  south-east  corner  watch  tower  and  room  33 
all  are  events  which  took  place  in  a  period  when  defence  and  military  con- 
siderations were  of  importance.  In  time,  however,  those  considerations  ei- 
ther became  less  important  or  perhaps  faded  entirely,  the  existing  fortifica- 
tions were  allowed  to  fall  into  disrepair  from  a  military  point  of  view,  and 
construction  Stage  4  was  built  with  little  concern  for  problems  of  defence. 

In  all  areas  on  the  Citadel  mound  save  one,  our  excavations  have 
shown  Period  III  remains  immediately  below  the  present  surface  of  the 
site.  In  Op.  AA9,  however,  we  did  uncover  some  very  fragmentary  and 
flimsy  wall  remains  that  appear  to  date  to  Period  II.  These  are  the  only 
architectural  elements  dated  to  Period  II  off  the  Upper  Citadel  mound. 
The  deposit  was  quite  shallow  and  at  times  it  was  difficult  to  distinguish 
with  certainty  between  Period  II  and  Period  III  walls.  Some  parts  of  the 
stone  wall  foundations  and  probably  all  of  the  mud  brick  walls  are  Period 
II.  At  best  we  can  say  that  in  Period  II  there  were  in  this  area  some  struc- 
tural features  which  could  have  been  either  a  simple  house (s)  or  animal 
pens.  We  have,  of  course,  no  way  of  knowing  whether  these  structures  are 
contemporary  with  the  main  occupation  of  the  fortified  manor  house  or 
with  the  "squatter  occupation". 

POTTERY  AND  SMALL  FINDS 

The  fortified  manor  house  of  Period  II  was  swept  clean  before  it  was  aban- 
doned and  very  few  small  finds  or  complete  pottery  vessels  have  been  re- 
covered. The  great  mass  of  the  sherds  in  the  period  II  debris  are,  of  course, 
of  Period  III  date  since  they  come  from  the  decayed  Period  II  bricks 
which  were  made  of  earth  dug  from  earlier  levels.  Several  large  deposits 
of  Period  II  pottery  in  prime  context,  taken  together  with  material  care- 
fully isolated  on  floors,  have  nevertheless  permitted  us  to  develop  what  is 
probably  a  fairly  characteristic  assemblage  of  Period  II  pottery.28  The 
great  bulk  of  this  material  must  date  to  the  latest  phase  of  the  building's 
occupation,  and  materials  from  the  areas  disturbed  by  the  "squatters" 
must  be  taken  as  dating  from  their  occupation.  Thus,  despite  the  fact  that 
we  are  able  to  reconstruct  the  fairly  complicated  architectural  history  for 

35 


the  building,  we  shall  probably  remain  unable  to  document  that  history  in 
ceramics. 

It  must  be  assumed  that  the  pottery  recovered  represents  a  terminus 
ante  quern  when  it  comes  to  dating  the  primary  occupation  of  this  building. 

The  description  of  ware  and  varieties  given  for  Period  II  pottery  in  our 
earlier  report  is  still  valid  and  essentially  unchanged.  Our  analysis  of  shape 
types,  however,  has  progressed  considerably,  though  no  attempt  is  made 
here  to  present  a  full  range  of  the  shapes  known.  The  pottery  illustrated  in 
Figs.  44  to  49  represents  an  unsystematic  selection  of  shape  types  illus- 
trative of  the  three  major  shape  categories  recovered:  jars,  pots  and  bowls. 
In  general  the  assemblage  can  be  characterized  as  having  a  great  many  dif- 
ferent shapes,  with  varieties  of  bowls  most  common.  We  do  not  think  our 
individual  shape  types  are  particularly  subtle  —  at  least  we  like  to  consider 
ourselves  "lumpers"  rather  than  "splitters"  and  we  have  found  our  classi- 
fication easy  to  teach  quickly  to  students  —  yet  we  have  isolated  well  over 
a  hundred  different  bowl  shapes  alone.  Pots  and  jars  appear  to  be  found 
in  far  fewer  varieties,  but  still  there  are  a  good  many  individual  shapes. 
In  making  comparisons  with  other  assemblages  known  to  be  generally  in 
the  same  time  range  —  e.g.,  segments  of  the  Nush-i  Jan  and  Baba  Jan 
assemblages29  —  it  is  at  once  clear  that,  while  Godin  II  yields  at  least  some 
examples  of  almost  every  ceramic  shape  in  those  collections  they  in  turn 
lack  literally  scores  of  the  shapes  that  are  well  known  at  Godin  in  Period 
II.  Such  observations  may  have  chronological  significance,  but  we  are  more 
inclined  for  the  moment  to  think  that  they  represent  functional  differences 
amongst  the  three  sites. 

Small  finds  (Fig.  50)  include:  a  fragment  of  a  limestone  bowl,  iron 
points,  an  iron  sickle  blade,  a  bone  arrow  (?)  head,  bone  spatulas,  a 
bronze  or  copper  fibula,  and  the  fragments  of  a  bone  hair  comb  which 
was  most  likely  worn  for  decoration  rather  than  actually  used  to  comb  the 
hair. 


36 


Conclusions 


As  in  1969,  it  is  still  much  too  early  to  attempt  any  broad  conclusions  re- 
garding the  results  of  the  excavations  at  Godin  Tepe  and  Seh  Gabi.  Fur- 
ther excavations  will  be  in  progress  while  this  manuscript  is  in  press  and 
the  bulk  of  the  analysis  of  the  materials  is  still  to  be  completed. 

It  may,  however,  be  useful  to  review  the  programme  for  continued 
excavation  described  in  the  conclusion  to  our  earlier  report  to  see  first, 
what  we  have  accomplished  since  1969,  second,  what  we  then  hoped  to  do 
but  still  have  before  us,  and  third,  what  new  tasks  have  suggested  them- 
selves as  new  materials  have  come  to  hand. 

We  have  yet  to  find  a  site  in  the  Kangavar  area  which  falls  in  the 
Sarab  or  Tepe  Guran  time  range  and  which  might  yield  materials  related 
on  the  one  hand  with  Ganj  Dareh  Tepe  and,  on  the  other,  with  the  earliest 
assemblages  yet  recovered  by  the  Godin  Project.  Frankly,  we  have  yet  to 
look  for  such  a  site  in  a  systematic  way,  and  such  a  search,  perhaps  fol- 
lowed by  excavation,  is  a  major  task  for  the  future. 

We  have,  however,  gone  far  with  the  excavations  at  Seh  Gabi  toward 
our  stated  goal  of  a  better  understanding  of  Godin  Periods  VI  and  VII. 
No  doubt  it  is  in  part  a  blessing  in  disguise  that  these  same  excavations 
have  shown  us  how  much  was  missing  in  the  Godin  Tepe  sequence  from 
the  late  Neolithic  period  in  the  Kangavar  area. 

Substantial  areas  of  both  Periods  IV  and  V  should  be  cleared  in  the 
1973  excavations,  bringing  to  an  end  our  work  in  the  area  of  the  Deep 
Sounding. 

Our  stated  goal  of  recovering  a  good  architectural  and  stratigraphic 
sequence  of  Period  III  material  over  a  sizable  horizontal  area  has  been 
essentially  met  through  the  excavations  to  date  in  the  Deep  Sounding.  The 
substantial  results  from  our  work  on  Period  III  provide  a  focal  point  for 
a  cultural  analysis  of  the  many  bits  and  pieces  of  evidence  available  on 
second  millennium  central  western  Iran. 

Finally  in  terms  of  aims  stated  earlier,  the  1973  field  season  should  see 
the  complete  recovery  of  all  the  extant  remains  at  Godin  dating  to  Period 
II. 

What  important  new  problems  and  questions  have  come  to  light  since 
our  last  report?  First,  we  have  a  long  way  to  go  before  we  sort  out  all 
of  the  crucial  chronological  issues  and  problems  in  cultural  history  raised 
by  our  first  season  of  excavations  at  Seh  Gabi.  A  better  understanding  of 
these  materials  will  not  only  clarify  the  archaeology  of  central  western  Iran 
in  the  late  Neolithic,  but  will  also  permit  us  to  link  this  area  in  this  time 
range  with  regions  of  Iran  to  the  east  and  north.  Second,  we  should  under- 
take more  work  in  the  cemetery  area  on  the  southern  Outer  Town  flat  at 
Godin.  We  need  to  know  more  about  burial  patterns  in  Period  III  and,  as 
something  of  a  bonus,  might  recover  more  material  from  the  still  very  enig- 
matic Iron  Age  I  and  II  periods.  Third  and  finally,  it  is  now  clear  that  a 
complete  re-survey  of  this  part  of  the  Zagros  is  necessary.  The  results  of 
the  Godin  Project  have  shown  how  crude  the  data  on  ceramic  types  used 

37 


in  previous  surveys  of  the  region  was;  with  the  better  chronological  con- 
trols made  possible  by  the  excavations  at  Godin  and  Seh  Gabi  we  will  be 
able  to  recover  settlement  patterns  for  this  area  in  much  finer  historical 
units.  With  such  a  survey  complete,  we  should  have  a  pretty  good  idea 
of  where  to  go  and  dig  next  for  a  maximum  return  of  historical  informa- 
tion. 


38 


Appendix  A 


The  Seh  Gabi  Chipped  Stone:  Preliminary  Observations 

The  sample  of  chipped  stone  recovered  at  Seh  Gabi  consists  of  almost  1000 
pieces.  Of  these,  about  20  small  flakes  and  blade  segments  are  of  obsidian 
(colours  range  from  almost  clear  to  black,  and  include  a  green  specimen). 
Sources  of  the  obsidian  may  be  suggested  by  the  analysis  currently  in  pro- 
gress. In  addition  to  obsidian,  the  excavations  produced  cobbles  and  angu- 
lar fragments  of  a  white  quartzitic  stone;  a  few  smaller  pieces  of  this  mate- 
rial may  have  been  worked.  The  bulk  of  the  chipped  stone  recovered  at 
Seh  Gabi  is  of  flint  or  chert;  the  heterogeneity  of  colors  and  textures  sug- 
gests the  use  of  river  cobbles  washed  down  from  many  sources  in  the 
Zagros.  Many  of  the  flakes,  which  comprise  a  large  proportion  of  the  total 
sample,  are  of  a  dark  reddish-brown  flint  which  was  almost  never  used  in 
the  manufacture  of  blades. 

Very  few  cores  were  found  at  Seh  Gabi.  The  flint  blades,  which  com- 
prise almost  one-third  of  the  collection,  are  varied  in  colour,  texture,  and 
size.  There  are  very  few  complete  blades;  however,  at  least  some  fragmen- 
tary blades  were  not  discarded  immediately.  A  few  blade  segments  have 
sheen  on  one  of  the  broken  ends,  and  a  few  are  retouched  along  one  or 
both  of  the  broken  edges.  Retouch,  found  on  almost  all  of  the  blades 
recovered,  is  usually  limited  to  the  ventral  surface.  Most  blades  are  heavily 
retouched  on  one  edge  and  much  more  lightly  retouched  on  the  other.  Usu- 
ally the  more  steeply  worked  edge  has  more  sheen  than  the  other;  some- 
times it  is  the  only  edge  on  which  sheen  is  visible.  This  may  indicate  that 
the  edge  with  the  less  steep  angle  was  hafted.  Sheen  is  visible  on  between 
one-third  and  one-half  of  the  blades,  and  occurs  on  both  ventral  and  dor- 
sal surfaces.  The  vast  majority  of  blades  has  retouch  or  use  along  both 
edges;  very  few  blades  were  worked  in  any  other  way.  In  view  of  the  fore- 
going, and  lacking  metal,  bone,  or  wooden  sickles,  it  is  assumed  that  at 
least  some  of  the  Seh  Gabi  blades  were  used  as  sickles. 

The  remainder  of  the  chipped  stone  sample  consists  of  small  flakes, 
some  of  them  worked  and  the  majority  unworked.  The  worked  flakes  in- 
clude a  few  notched  pieces,  some  drill  or  perforator-like  pieces,  rare  points 
(by  which  term  no  functional  connotation  is  implied),  a  few  scrapers,  and 
several  outils  ecailles,?,{>  which  may  have  been  used  as  punches.  One  or 
more  edge  of  many  irregularly  shaped  flakes  possess  tiny  nicks  which  may 
be  the  result  of  brief  and  casual  use. 

The  Seh  Gabi  assemblage  includes  very  few  artifacts  which  might  be 
termed  microliths.  There  are  four  microblades  (but  no  cores),  one  of  them 
very  steeply  backed.  There  are  also  a  few  small  geometric  pieces,  some  of 
which  may  be  re-used  blade  fragments. 

The  small  size  of  the  Seh  Gabi  chipped  stone  sample  and  the  relatively 
large  number  of  provenances,  as  well  as  the  long  time  represented  by  the 
sample,  preclude  the  denfiition  of  any  clear  horizontal  or  temporal  varia- 
tion until  more  detailed  analysis  is  conducted.  Study  of  the  stratigraphic 
contexts  and  horizontal  distributions  of  the  chipped  stone  artifacts  should 

39 


suggest  possible  interpretations  of  their  functions.  Such  interpretations  may 
be  modified  or  further  supported  by  the  analysis,  currently  being  carried 
out  by  Lynn  Ceci  and  Carol  Hamlin,  of  an  additional  sample  to  be  col- 
lected during  the  1973  excavation.  A  detailed  description  of  the  chipped 
stone  assemblage  will  be  included  in  the  final  publication  of  Seh  Gabi. 


Appendix  B 


The  Seh  Gabi  Osteological  Material:  Preliminary  Observations 

Osteological  evidence  for  the  existence  of  the  following  species  at  Seh  Gabi 
has  been  established: 

Hemiechinus  sp.,  probably  auritus  Long-earned  Hedgehog 

This  is  certainly  a  species  of  Hemiechinus,  probably  auritus.  Based  on 
present  species  distributions,  this  appears  to  be  the  only  species  in 
western  and  southwestern  Iran. 

Lepus  sp.  Hare 

This  is  a  small  species,  and  the  fact  that  the  specimen  itself  is  from 
an  immature  animal  makes  species  identification  difficult. 

Cricetulus  sp.  Gray  Hamster 

Possibly  this  genus  is  present.  If  this  is  in  fact  the  case,  the  gray  ham- 
ster C.migratorius  is  the  probable  species,  being  commonly  found  in 
the  north  and  west  of  Iran  today.  This  specimen  may  be  intrusive. 

Microtus  sp.  Vole 

Apodemus  sylvaticus  Field  Mouse  (Wood  Mouse) 

Mus  musculus  House  Mouse 

Rattus  rattus  House  Rat 

Canis  lupus  Wolf 

Canis  aureus  (probably)  Jackal 

Vulpes  vulpes  Red  Fox 

Canis  familiaris  Dog 

This  species  appears  to  be  present,  based  on  the  analysis  of  two  man- 
dible fragments  and  a  number  of  teeth  (especially  lower  M4). 

Mustela  nivalis  Weasel 

Vormela  or  Martes  sp.  Polecat  or  Martin 

Meles  meles  Badger 

Cervus  elaphus  Red  Deer,  Stag 

Capra  hi  reus  Persian  Goat 

40 


Ovis  orientalis  Sheep 

Bos  sp.  Wild  (?)  Ox 

Sus  scrofa  Wild  (?)  Hog 

Equus  sp.  ? 

Also  found  were:  one  humerus  representing  Testudo  sp.  (a  species  of 
land  tortoise);  one  mandible  fragment  (about  9-10  mm)  representing  a 
species  of  lizard;  a  large  number  of  shell  fragments  representing  Unio  sp., 
a  riverine  clam;  and  several  shells  representing  Helix  sp.,  a  land  snail. 

Approximately  half  of  the  available  material  has  been  sorted,  and  two- 
thirds  of  that  material  is  washed,  labelled  and  identified. 

Capra  and  Ovis  remains  made  up  60%  of  the  studied  bones;  Cervus, 
15%  ;  Bos,  5%  ;  Sus,  5%  ;  Rodentia,  6%  ;  Carnivora,  7%  ;  and  other  bones 
(including  Testudo,  Helix  and  Unio  remains),  2%. 

The  large  proportion  of  Ovis  and  Capra  bones  might  seem  to  indicate 
a  degree  of  cultural  control  (that  is,  domestication),  but  a  decision  on  this 
matter  must  wait  for  a  closer  osteological  investigation  of  the  material. 
Over  half  the  specimens  of  Ovis  and  Capra  were  subadult  or  young  adult 
specimens.  There  were  several  very  young  (neonate)  specimens  and  a  few 
old,  arthritic  specimens.  The  question  of  domestication  of  Bos  and  Sus 
must  wait  further  study.  At  present,  there  are  too  few  specimens  to  permit 
a  decision. 

Many  of  the  carnivore  species  were  also  represented  by  very  young 
specimens,  particularly  Meles  meles  and  Cams  familiaris. 


41 


Footnotes 


1.  Young,  1969a. 

2.  The  preparation  of  this  report  has  been  very  much  a  joint  effort.  In  the  main, 
however,  Levine  wrote  the  section  on  Seh  Gabi,  Young  the  section  on  Godin 
Tepe. 

3.  Young,  1966. 

4.  A  small  sounding  between  mounds  A  and  E  was  excavated  with  the  objective  of 
testing  this  proposition.  The  results  proved  inconclusive. 

5.  Young,  1962a  and  b. 

6.  A  ten  metre  grid  oriented  to  magnetic  north  (May,  1971)  was  imposed  over  the 
entire  area  of  Seh  Gabi.  The  north-south  axis  is  designated  by  a  letter,  e.g.  G, 
the  east- west  axis  by  an  Arabic  numeral,  e.g.  21. 

7.  The  identification  was  made  by  Dr.  F.  J.  Wicks  of  the  Dept.  of  Mineralogy, 
rom,  to  whom  we  tender  our  thanks. 

8.  One  component  of  the  assemblage,  the  painted  pottery,  is  known  from  the  site 
of  Tepe  Giyan  (Contenau  &  Chirshman,  1935),  where  it  is  assigned  to  levels 
Vc  and  Vd  (McCowan,  1942:13).  These  levels  at  Giyan  are  arbitrarily  deter- 
mined, and  we  know  little  more  about  them  than  the  drawings  of  some  of  the 
painted  pottery  found.  From  the  Seh  Gabi  excavations,  it  is  abundantly  clear 
that  the  Giyan  levels  are  mixed. 

9.  The  stratigraphy  of  these  upper  levels  was  disturbed  by  numerous  animal  bur- 
rows, and  it  was  often  impossible  to  form  proper  stratigraphic  links  between  the 
preserved  areas. 

10.  Aside  from  Dalma  Tepe  and  survey  material,  the  only  other  site  with  an  im- 
portant collection  of  similar  material  is  Tepe  Siabid.  Unfortunately,  we  have  not 
been  able  to  consult  this  material  as  yet,  but  it  must  be  taken  into  account  be-' 
fore  we  can  draw  anything  approximating  a  full  picture  of  our  present  under- 
standing of  the  cultural  dynamics  involved  in  this  period.  After  this  manuscript 
had  gone  to  press,  another  Dalma  period  site  was  published.  See  R.  L.  and  R.  S. 
Solecki,  "Tepe  Seavan,  Azerbaijan,"  Bulletin  of  the  Asia  Institute  of  Pahlavi  Uni- 
versity, No.  3  (1973),  98-116. 

11.  Our  thanks  are  due  to  Prof.  R.  H.  Dyson,  Jr.,  Curator  of  the  Near  East  Section, 
for  permission  to  examine  this  material. 

12.  Young,  1969a:  3-6. 

13.  Young,  1969a:  4. 

14.  A  sherd  of  this  ware  from  Pd.  VII  at  Godin  is  published  in  Young,  1969a,  Fig. 
6,  3. 

15.  Dyson,  1965  and  1968. 

16.  See  Young,  1969a:  9  for  a  discussion  of  evidence  on  the  stratigraphic  and  chrono- 
logical relationship  between  Periods  IV  and  III. 

17.  In  many  ways  it  would  be  preferable  to  describe  the  stratification  and  architec- 
ture of  the  Deep  Sounding  from  bottom  to  top.  The  reverse  procedure  is  fol- 
lowed here  for  one  basic  reason:  until  the  excavations  and  the  analysis  of  the 
materials  recovered  is  complete  it  is  much  easier  and  perhaps  potentially  even 
less  confusing  to  deal  with  the  materials  as  they  were  excavated,  i.e.  from  the 
top  or  most  recent  level  down. 

18.  Young,  1969a:  11-12. 

19.  After  having  coined  the  term  "spiral  stratigraphy"  in  the  field  we  discovered  we 
were  not  the  first  to  use  it:  see  Haines,  1969:  1.  Our  thanks  to  Harvey  Weiss 
for  bringing  this  reference  to  our  attention. 

20.  Young,  1969a:   12-14. 

21.  Young,  1969a:  11. 

22.  For  further  discussion  of  the  comparative  chronology  of  the  Period  III  pottery, 
see  Young,  1969b. 

42 


23.  Young,  1969a:  23-24. 

24.  Young,  1969a:  29. 

25.  Young,  1969a:  Fig.  36. 

26.  Young,  1969a:  25  and  Fig.  38.  The  feature  called  a  drain  in  Fig.  38  was,  of 
course,  the  outer  end  of  the  first  arrow  slot  we  found,  but  we  did  not  then 
know  what  we  had  found. 

27.  One  other  possible  explanation  for  this  mass  of  stones  comes  to  mind,  but  can- 
not be  demonstrated,  if  at  all,  until  the  structure  is  dismantled.  It  is  perhaps 
reasonable  to  assume  that  in  Stage  1  of  the  building  there  was  a  corner  fortifica- 
tion tower  in  this  area.  That  tower  would  have  been  dismantled  in  the  construc- 
tion of  Stage  4.  The  stone  could  be  the  remnants  of  the  foundations  for  that 
tower. 

28.  For  example,  a  great  mass  of  sherds  was  discovered  at  the  extreme  east  end  of 
corridor  26  in  a  large  deposit  of  occupational  trash  and  probably  human  waste. 
Since  this  was  the  blind  end  of  the  corridor  it  seems  to  have  been  used  as  a 
dumping  ground  and  also  as  a  toilet.  Perhaps  the  sherds  were  used  as  toilet 
paper,  a  common  enough  practice  in  the  Near  East  today.  We  wish  to  thank 
Edward  Keall  for  this  suggested  interpretation. 

29.  Stronach,  1969:  Figs.  6  and  7.  Goff,  1968:  Fig.  10  Cf.  particularly  our  Fig.  45, 
No.  20  with  Goff,  1968:  Fig.  10,  No.  15.  We  wish  to  thank  both  David  Stron- 
ach and  Claire  Goff  for  permitting  us  to  examine  in  a  preliminary  fashion  their 
pottery,  for  taking  the  time  to  go  through  our  materials,  and  for  many  hours  of 
pleasant  discussion  about  the  finer  points  of  Iron  Age  III  archaeology. 

30.  Brezillon,  1971:  288. 


43 


References 


BREZILLON, 

1971 


CONTENEAU. 

1935 
DYSON,  R.  H 

1965 


1968 

GOFF,   C. 

1968 


MICHEL  N. 

La  Denomination  des  Ob  jets  de  Pierre  tail  lee,  IVe  supplement  a 
"Gallia  Prehistoire",  seconde  edition.  Editions  du  Centre  National  de 
la  Recherche  Scientifique,  Paris. 

G.  and  R.  GHIRSHMAN 

Fouilles  du  Tepe-Giyan.  Paris. 
,  JR. 

"Problems  in  the  Relative  Chronology  of  Iran,  6000-2000  B.C.",  pp. 

215-256  in  R.  W.  Ehrich,  ed.,  Chronologies  in  Old  World  Archaeology, 

Chicago. 

"Annotations  and  Corrections  of  the  Relative  Chronology  of  Iran, 

1968,"  ,47,4,  72:  308-313. 


"Luristan  in  the  first  half  of  the  first  millennium  B.C. 
134. 


6:  105- 


HAINES,   R.   C. 

1969 


Excavations  in  the  plain  of  Antioch  II.  The  structural  remains  of  the 
later  phases.  Oriental  Institute  Publications,  XCV.  Chicago. 


MCCOWAN 

1942 

STRONACH,   D 
1969 


D.  E. 


The  Comparative  Stratigraphy  of  Early  Iran,  SAOC,  23,  Chicago. 


"Excavations  at  Tepe  Nush-i  Jan,  1967,"  Iran,  7:  1-20. 

YOUNG,  T.   C.   JR. 

1962a       "Taking  the  History  of  the  Hasanlu  Area  back  another  five  thousand 
years:  Sixth  and  Fifth  millennium  settlement  in  the  Solduz  valley, 
Persia,"  1LN,  241  (6431):  707-709. 

1962b       "Dalma  Painted  Wares,"  Expedition,  5  (2):  38-39. 

1966         "Survey  in  Western  Iran,  1961,"  JNES,  25  (4) :  228-239. 

1969a       Excavation  at  Godin  Tepe:  First  Progress  Report.  Royal  Ontario 
Museum,  Art  and  Archaeology,  Occasional  Paper  17.  Toronto. 

1969b       "The  chronology  of  the  late  third  and  second  millennia  in  central  west- 
ern Iran  as  seen  from  Godin  Tepe,"  AJA,  73  (3):  287-291. 


44 


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54 


Figures 


1     Central  and  North  Western  Iran. 


56 


2     Contour  map  of  Seh   Gahi   and   environs. 


57 


ivNOiiiSNvai ►{- vwiva 


3     Seh  Gabi.  South  Section,  G20  and  G21 


58 


4     Seh  Gabi.  Mound  B.  Level  Al,  architecture. 


59 


p 

< 

T 

O) 

—I 

*J 

V™ 

LU 

o 

> 

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O 

LU 

—1 

CD 

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o 

OQ 

CO 

< 

no 

O 

O 

c 

00 

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z 

3 

c 
o 

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O 

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s 

a. 
O 

5     Seh  Gabi.  Mound  B,  Level  A2,  architecture. 

60 


6     Seh  Gabi.  Mound  B,  Level  B.  architecture. 


61 


+ 


o> 


CO 
< 


(/) 


UJ   O 

Q  S 


2  a 


7     Seh  Gabi,  Mound  B,  Level  C,  architecture. 

62 


8     Seh  Gabi.  Mound  B.  Level  C.  detail  of  wall  N. 


63 


Figure  9  — Catalogue 


Fig.  No.      Locus 


Description 


1 

Mound  B, 

surface 

2 

G21,Lot6 

3 

G19,Lot71 

4 

G21,Lot25 

5 

G22,  Lot  1 3 

6 

Mound  B, 

surface 

7 

G20,  Lot  67 

8 

G21,Lot6 

9 

G21,Lot6 

10 

G21,Lot24 

11 

G21,Lot62 

12 

G21,Lot55 

13 

G22,  Lot  18 

14 

G22,  Lot  16 

15 

G22,  Lot  10 

16 

H19,  Lot  20 

17 

H19,  Lot  27 

18 

G22,  Lot  19 

19 

G22,  Lot  18 

Double  slipped.  White.  Black. 

Unslipped.  Orange  buff.  Reddish  brown. 

Double  slipped.  White.  Reddish  brown. 

Double  slipped.  White.  Purple. 

Double  slipped.  White.  Purple.  Overtired  to  vitrification. 

Double  slipped.  White.  Black. 

Double  slipped.  White.  Reddish  purple. 

Unslipped.  Orange  buff.  Red. 

Double  slipped.  White.  Reddish  brown. 

SG71-79.  Tehran. 

SG7 1-200.  Tehran. 

Double  slipped.  White  with  red  wash.  Purple. 

Double  slipped.  White.  Reddish  brown.  Mica. 

Unslipped.  Orange  buff.  Red. 

Double  slipped.  White.  Red  and  purple. 

Double  slipped.  White.  Red  and  black. 

Double  slipped.  White.  Red  and  black. 

Double  slipped.  White.  Red  and  purplish-brown. 

Double  slipped.  White.  Red  and  purplish-brown. 


64 


* 


9 


l< 


15 


10 


i% 


16 


/)' 


l\ 


6 


8 


11 


17 


18 


9     Seh  Gabi,  Dalma  painted  wares. 


0  5 

1  I    I    I    I    I 


\     ! 


19 


65 


Figure  10  —  Catalogue 


Fig.  No.      Locus  Description 


G22,  Lot  14       Outside  double  slipped,  red  over  cream.  Inside  single 

slipped.  Red.  Smoothed. 
G22,  Lot  14       Outside  single  slipped,  cream.  Inside  and  rim  double 

slipped,  red  over  cream.  Inside  smoothed.  Manipulation 

done  with  blunt  ended  instrument  from  above.  Impressions 

up  to  4.5  mm.  deep. 
G22,  Lot  14       Single  slipped.  Red.  Incisions  shallow.  2  mm.  Fairly 

uniform  depth.  Smoothed. 
G22,  Lot  15       Double  slipped.  Pink  over  cream.  Inside  rough,  as  if  reeds 

packed  up  against  wall  while  clay  was  soft.  Matte. 

Red  to  orange  light  slip.  Smoothed. 

Red  slip.  Matte. 

Red  slip.  Outside  smoothed. 

Red  slip.  Entire  surface  below  rim  rough  and  pitted.  Blunt 

instrument  used  to  destroy  surface.  Depth  of  impressions 

vary  widely.  Matte. 

Red  slip.  Colour  varies  from  red  to  tan.  Impressions  made 

with  rounded  instrument.  Depth  varies  greatly.  Smoothed. 

Pink  slip.  Impressions  made  with  fingernail.  Matte. 

Outside  red  slipped.  Inside  double  slipped,  red  over  cream. 

Surface  heavily  pitted  with  blunt  instrument.  Inside  matte. 

Double  slipped.  Red  over  cream.  Matte. 

Cream  slipped.  Matte. 


5 
6 
7 
8 

G22,  Lot  14 
G22,  Lot  15 
G22,  Lot  15 
G22,  Lot  14 

9 

G22,  Lot  14 

10 
11 

G22,  Lot  17 
G22,  Lot  14 

12 

13 

G22,  Lot  17 
G22,  Lot  26 

66 


8 


0  5  10 

MINI |c. 


10     Seh  Gahi.  Dalma  plain  and  surface  manipulated  wares. 


67 


Figure  11  —  Catalogue 


Fig.  No.      Locus 


Description 


1 

2 
3 
4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 
16 
17 

18 
19 
20 

21 

22 

23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 

31 

32 


G20,Lot23 
G19,  Lot  6 
G18,  Lot  12 
Mound  B, 
surface 
H19,  Lot  10 
HI 9,  surface 
H19,Lot6 
G19,  Lot  103 
G20,  Lot  62 
G19,  Lot  103 
G18,  Lot  2 
G19,  Lot  99 
G18,  Lot  5 
Mound  B, 
surface 
G20,  Lot  8 
H19,Lot  10 
G 19,  Lot  107 

G19,  Lot  97 
G19,  Lot  98 
G19,  Lot  97 
Mound  B, 
surface 
G19,  Lot  103 

G19,  Lot  4 
G21,Lot  14 
G20,  Lot  35 
G20,  Lot  35 
G20,  Lot  35 
G18,  Lot  3 
H19,  Lot  34 
G19,  surface 

G18,  Lot  16 
G20,  Lot  14 


Greenish.  Black.  Matte.  Hand  made. 
Buff.  Black.  Matte.  Wheel  made. 
Buff.  Brown  to  Black.  Matte.  Wheel  made. 
Buff.  Black.  Matte.  Hand  made. 

Buff.  Brown.  Matte.  Wheel  made. 
Tannish  red.  Black.  Matte.  Wheel  made. 
Buff.  Black.  Matte.  Wheel  made. 
Buff  slip.  Red  brown.  Matte.  Wheel  made. 
Buff.  Black.  Smoothed.  Wheel  made. 
Greenish.  Black.  Smoothed.  Wheel  made. 
Buff.  Black.  Smoothed.  Wheel  made. 
Buff.  Black.  Matte.  Wheel  made. 
Greenish.  Black.  Matte.  Wheel  made. 
Buff.  Black.  Matte.  Wheel  made. 

Buff.  Brown.  Matte.  Wheel  made. 

Buff.  Black.  Matte.  Wheel  made. 

Greenish.  Black.  Matte.  Wheel  made.  Painted  line  on 

inside  of  rim. 

Buff.  Black.  Smoothed.  Wheel  made. 

Buff.  Black.  Smoothed.  Wheel  made. 

Buff.  Black.  Smoothed.  Wheel  made. 

Buff.  Black.  Smoothed.  Wheel  made. 

Greenish.  Black.  Matte.  Wheel  made.  Traces  of  paint 

on  inside. 

Buff.  Black.  Matte.  Hand  made. 

Buff.  Black.  Matte.  Wheel  made. 

Buff.  Black.  Matte.  Wheel  made. 

Buff.  Black.  Smoothed.  Wheel  made. 

Buff.  Reddish  brown.  Matte.  Wheel  made. 

Buff.  Reddish  brown.  Smoothed.  Wheel  made. 

Buff.  Black.  Smoothed.  Wheel  made. 

Buff.  Brown.  Matte.  Wheel  made.  Painted  line  on 

inside  rim. 

Greenish.  Black.  Smoothed.  Wheel  made. 

Buff.  Black.  Smoothed.  Wheel  made. 


All  Seh  Gabi  painted  ware 


68 


6 


0 


(3 

24 

0  5  10 

1  I    I    I     I    I |cm 


32 


l  l      Seh  Gabi,  Seh  Gabi  painted  wares. 


69 


Figure  12  —  Catalogue 


Fig.  No.      Field  No. 


Locus 


Present  Location 


1 

SG  71-162 

Mound  B,  G20,  Lot  26 

2 

SG  71-137 

Mound  B,  G20,  Lot  18 

3 

SG  71-128 

Mound  B,  G20,  Lot  10 

4 

SG71-11 

Mound  B,  G20,  Lot  2 

5 

SG  71-127 

Mound  B,  G20,  Lot  21 

6 

SG71-115 

Mound  B,  HI 9,  Lot  13 

7 

SG  71-53 

Mound  B,  H19,  Lot  2 

8 

SG  71-130 

Mound  B,  G20,  Lot  21 

9 

SG71-138 

Mound  B,  H19,  Lot  22 

10 

SG  71-77 

Mound  B,  G20,  Lot  17 

11 

SG71-135 

Mound  B,  H19,  Lot  16 

12 

SG  71-201 

Mound  B,  G18,  Lot  30 

13 

SG  71-176 

Mound  B,F  17,  Lot  17 

N.A. 

Tehran 

N.A. 

N.A. 

Tehran 

Tehran 

N.A. 

N.A. 

N.A. 

Tehran 

Tehran 

Tehran 

Tehran 


70 


12     Seh  Gabi.  Sch  Gabl  plain  wares. 


71 


Figure  13  —  Catalogue 


Fig.  No.      Locus  Description 


1 

F46,  Lot  9 

2 

F46,  Lot  9 

3 

F46,  Lot  9 

4 

P43,Lotl9 

5 

F46,  Lot  9 

6 

P43,  Lot  19 

7 

F46,  Lot  9 

8 

F46,  Lot  8-9 

9 

F46,  Lot  8 

10 

F46,  Lot  15 

11 

F46,  Lot  2 

12 

F46,  Lot  8 

13 

F46,  Lot  20 

14 

Y50,  Lot  4a 

15 

F46,  Lot  8 

16 

F46,  Lot  8-9 

17 

Y50,  Lot  4 

18 

K38,  Lot  4 

Buff  slipped  coarse  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 

Buff  slipped  coarse  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 

Buff  slipped  coarse  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 

Buff  slipped  coarse  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 

Buff  slipped  coarse  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 

SG  71-2.  N.A. 

Red  slipped  coarse  ware.  Reddish  Buff.  Smoothed. 

Buff  slipped  coarse  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 

Plain  buff  coarse  ware.  Orange  buff.  Outside  smoke 

blackened.  Matte. 

Plain  buff  coarse  ware.  Buff.  Interior  smoke-blackened. 

Smoothed. 

SG  71-224.  N.A. 

Plain  buff  coarse  ware.  Buff.  Exterior  smoke-blackened. 

Matte. 

Plain  buff  coarse  ware.  Buff.  Matte. 

Common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 

Plain  buff  coarse  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 

Red  slipped  coarse  ware.  Red.  Burnished. 

Common  ware.  Buff.  Interior  buff  slipped.  Smoothed. 

Common  ware.  Buff  slipped.  Burnished. 


72 


13     Seh  Gahi.  Godin  VII  and  VI  plain  wares. 


73 


Figure  14  —  Catalogue 


Fig.  No.      Locus 


Description 


1 

Y50,  Lot  7 

2 

Y50,  Lot  6 

3 

Mound  F, 

surface 

4 

Y50,  Lot  4a 

5 

Mound  F, 

surface 

6 

Y50,  Lot  3a 

7 

Y50,  Lot  5 

8 

Y50,  Lot  6 

9 

Y50,  Lot  4a 

10 

Y50,  Lot  2a 

11 

Y50,  Lot  la 

12 

Y50,Lot  22 

13 

Y50,  Lot  6 

14 

Mound  F, 

surface 

15 

F46,  Lot  4 

16 

Y50,  Lot  5 

17 

Y50,  Lot  7 

18 

Y50,  Lot  5 

19 

Y50,  Lot  32 

20 

Y50,  Lot  6 

White  slipped.  Brown. 
White  slipped.  Black. 
Unslipped.  Buff.  Brown. 

Unslipped.  White.  Black. 
Unslipped.  Buff.  Black. 

White  slipped.  Brown. 
Unslipped.  Buff.  Brown. 
White  slipped.  Brown. 
Unslipped.  White.  Brown. 
Pinkish  slipped.  Brown. 
Unslipped.  Buff.  Red.  # 
Unslipped.  Buff.  Black! 
Unslipped.  White.  Black. 
White  slipped.  Brown. 

White  slipped.  Brown. 
White  slipped.  Brown. 
Unslipped.  White.  Black. 
White  slipped.  Brown. 
Unslipped.  White.  Black. 
Unslipped.  Buff.  Brown. 


All  Pd.  VI  painted  fine  ware. 
All  wheel  made  and  smoothed. 


74 


_, 


D 


\ 


x       v^^ 


6 


19 


0  5 

' 


10 

Jem 


20 


14     Seh  Gabi,  Godin  VI  painted  wares. 


75 


Figure  15  —  Catalogue 

Fig.  No. 

Field  No. 

Locus 

Present  Location 

1 

SG  71-36 

Mound  B,  G20,  Lot  13 

N.A. 

2 

SG  71-65 

Mound  B,  surface 

N.A. 

3 

SG  71-196 

Mound  E,  F46,  Lot  16 

N.A. 

4 

SG  71-143 

Mound  B,G  18,  Lot  6 

N.A. 

5 

SG  71-13 

Mound  B,G20,  Lot  4 

N.A. 

6 

SG  71-41 

Mound  A,  K38,  Lot  8 

N.A. 

7 

SG  71-28 

Mound  B,  F17,  Lot  19 

Tehran 

8 

SG  71-177 

Mound  E,  F46,  Lot  6 

N.A. 

9 

SG  71-152 

Mound  B,  G20,  Lot  2 

N.A. 

10 

SG  71-207 

Mound  B,G21,  Lot  65 

Tehran 

11 

SG  71-244 

Mound  B,  G20,  Lot  67-68 

Tehran 

12 

SG  71-165 

Mound  B,  G21,Lot43 

Tehran 

13 

SG  71-192 

Mound  E,  F46,  Lot  7 

Tehran 

14 

SG71-19 

Mound  B,  G19,  Lot  1 

Tehran 

15 

SG  71-166 

Mound  B,G21,Lot47 

N.A. 

16 

SG  71-24 

Mound  B,  F17,  Lot  7 

N.A. 

17 

SG  71-51 

Mound  B,  H19,  Lot  3 

Tehran 

18 

SG  71-96 

Mound  B,  G18,  Lot  5 

Tehran 

19 

SG  71-107 

Mound  B,G19,  Lot  47 

N.A. 

20 

SG  71-42 

Mound  B,  G20,  Lot  17 

N.A. 

21 

SG  71-215 

Mound  B,  G22,  Lot  18 

N.A. 

22 

SG  71-169 

Mound  B,  G21,  Lot  39 

Tehran 

23 

SG  71-205 

Mound  B,G18,  Lot  31 

Tehran 

24 

SG  71-132 

Mound  B,  G18,  surface 

Tehran 

25 

SG  71-25 

Mound  B,  F17,  Lot  7 

N.A. 

76 


15     Seh  Gabi,  small  finds. 


77 


Figure  16  —  Catalogue 

Fig.  No. 

Field  No. 

Locus 

Present  Location 

lb 

SG  71-229 

F46,  Bl,  Lot  10,  covering  la 

N.A. 

la 

SG  71-230 

F46,  Bl,Lot  10 

N.A. 

2 

SG  71-234 

G18,  Bl,Lot36 

N.A. 

3 

SG  71-180 

G20,  B5,  Lot  60 

Tehran 

4b 

SG  71-227 

F46,  B2,  Lot  20,  covering  4a 

Tehran 

4a 

SG  71-228 

F46,  B2,  Lot  20 

Tehran 

78 


1b 


1a 


0  10 

1  I   I    I    I    I 


20 
I  cm 


16     Seh  Gabi.  burials. 


79 


7     Contour  map  of  Godin  Tepe.  Shaded  areas  indicate  extent  of  excavations  as  of 
the  end  of  the  1971  field  season. 


80 


Godin,  South  Section.  Operations  AA2.  A2.  B2  and  C2:   the  Master  Sectic 
the  Deep  Sounding. 


83 


Figure  19  —  Catalogue 


Fig.  No.      Locus  Description 


la  A01,Lot24  Gd.  71-313.  N.A. 

2a  A01,  Lot  24  Gd.  71-312.  Tehran. 

3a  AOl,  Lot  24  Gd.  71-311.  Tehran. 

4a  AOl,  Lot  24  Gd.  71-310.  N.A. 

1  AOl,  Lot  24  Common  Ware.  Black.  Burnished. 

2  BOl,  Lot  86  Grey-black  Coarse  Ware.  Grey.  Smoothed. 

3  AOl,  Lot  28  Common  Ware.  Black.  Burnished. 

4  AOl,  Lot  30  Common  Ware.  Grey  Smoothed. 

5  BOl,  Lot  42  Grey-black  Coarse  Ware.  Grey-brown.  Smoothed. 

6  BOl,  Lot  36  Gd.  71-350.  Discarded. 


84 


0  5 

1  I     I     I     I     I 


10 
Jem 


19     Godin,  Period  IV  pottery  and  small  finds. 


20     Godin,  Level  III:5D  structures. 

86 


21      Godin,  Level  ITI:4A  structures. 


87 


22     Godin,  Level  TTI:2C  structures. 


88 


23     Godin.  Level  III:2A  structures. 


89 


90 


GODIN   TEPE   1969 

period  n 

0      1        2       3       4      5 


d) 


24     Godin.  Period  Til  structures.  Operations  AA9  and  AAIO. 


Figure  25  —  Catalogue 


Fig.  No.      Field  No. 


Locus 


Present  Location 


1 

Gd.  69-438 

B3,st.  4,  Bur.  3 

2 

Gd.  69-222 

C2,  st.  5,  Area  6 

3 

Gd.  69-443 

B3,st.  4,  Bur.  3 

4 

Gd.  69-703 

AAl,st.  14,  Area  10 

5 

Gd.  69-260 

AA2,  st.  13,  Area  15 

6 

Gd.  69-629 

Period  II  fill 

7 

Gd.  71-7 

B2,  Lot  130 

8 

Gd.  69-45 

AA2,  st.  10,  Area  12 

9 

Gd.  69-704 

Bl,  Lot  89 

10 

Gd.  69-675 

R,  Bur.  2 

11 

Gd.  69-339 

C2,  st.  5,  Area  5 

12 

Gd.  69-767 

B3,  st.  4,  Bur.  2 

13 

Gd.  69-599 

C2,  Lot  53 

14 

Gd.  69-740 

Al,Lot99 

15 

Gd.  69-760 

Bl,  wall  cache 

16 

Gd.  69-463 

C3,  Bur.  1 

17 

Gd.  69-731 

Al,  Lot  61 

18 

Gd.  69-730 

AA1.  st.  14,  Area  10 

Discarded 
Tehran 

N.A. 

N.A. 

Tehran 

N.A. 

N.A. 

N.A. 

N.A. 

N.A. 

Tehran 

Discarded 

N.A. 

Discarded 

Tehran 

N.A. 

Discarded 

Discarded 


92 


0  5 

1  I     I     I     I     I 


10 

_Jcm 


25     Godin,  Period  ITT  pottery. 


93 


Figure  26  —  Catalogue 


Fig.  No.      Field  No.  Locus  Present  Location 

Discarded 

Tehran 

N.A. 

Discarded 

N.A. 

N.A. 

Tehran 

N.A. 

Tehran 


1 

Gd.  69-227 

AA2,  st.  11,  Area  12 

2 

Gd.  69-598 

C2,  Lot  53 

3 

Gd.  69-673 

R,  Bur.  2 

4 

Gd.  69-739 

Al,  Lot  101 

5 

Gd.  69-248 

AAl,st.  11,  Area  4 

6 

Gd.  69-316 

B3,st.  3,  Area  4 

7 

Gd.  69-753 

C2,  st.  8B,  Area  104 

8 

Gd.  69-460 

A2,  st.  8,  Area  23 

9 

Gd.  69-732 

B2,  st.  12,  Area  6 

94 


26     Godin,  Period  III  pottery. 


0  5 

1  I    I    I     I    I 


10 

_|cm 


95 


Figure  27  —  Catalogue 


Fig.  No.      Field  No.  Locus  Present  Location 

Discarded 

N.A. 

Discarded 

Tehran 

N.A. 

Discarded 


1 

Gd.  69-559 

B3,  Lot  7,  Area  4 

2 

Gd.  69-657 

AA2,  st.  14,  Area  22 

3 

Gd.  69-669 

R,  Bur.  1 

4 

Gd.  69-548 

Al,Lot  80,  Area  14 

5 

Gd.  69-658 

B2,  st.  12,  Area  6 

6 

Gd.  69-319 

AA2,  st.  8C,  Area  6 

96 


0 

MM 


20 

Jem 


27     Godin,  Period  III  pottery. 


97 


Figure  28  —  Catalogue 


Fig.  No.      Locus  Description 


1  DD3,  Lot  8,       ? 
Area  1 

2  BB1,  st.  2-3       Coarse  Reddish  brown  surface.  Smoke-blackened. 

Smoothed. 

3  A2,  st.  3,  Reddish  smoke-blackened  coarse. 
Area  3 

4  AA3,  Lot  10,     Coarse-red-brown  surface.  Smoothed.  Wheel  made, 
st.  2-3,  Area  4 

5  AA10,  st.  2-3,  Coarse-red-brown  surface.  Smoke-blackened. 
Area  4 

6  BB3,  Lot  37,     Smoke-blackened.  Well  fired.  Buff  slip, 
st.  3b,  Area  1 

7  AA3,  Lot  10,     Buff  Brown.  Well  fired.  Wheel  made, 
st.  2-3,  Area  4 

8  BB1,  Lot  37,     Well  fired.  Light  red. 
st.  3b 

9  EE1,  Lot  2,        Buff  brown.  Well  finished.  Wheel  made, 
st.  2,  Area  2 

10  AA3,  Lot  8,       Brown  red.  Smoke  blackened, 
st.  2,  Area  2 

11  BB2,  st.  3b         Common  Buff-pink.  Smoothed.  Wheel  made. 

12  AA3,  Lot  10,     ? 
st.  2-3,  Area  4 

13  Number  Common  plain  buff.  Wheel  made, 
missing 

14  Number  Coarse  grey.  Smoke-blackened  surface.  Wheel  made, 
missing 

15  AA3,  Lot  10,     Coarse  Buff-reddish  Brown  surface.  Smoke-blackened, 
st.  2-3,  Area  4  Wheel  made. 


98 


0  5  10 

I'lIM |cm 


28     Godin,  Period  III  painted  pottery. 


99 


Figure  29  - —  Catalogue 


Fig.  No.      Field  No.  Locus  Present  Location 

Tehran 

Tehran 

Tehran 

Tehran 

Tehran 

Tehran 

N.A. 

Tehran 


1 

Gd.  71-274 

Al,  Lot  248 

2 

Gd.  71-219 

AM,  Lot  78 

3 

Gd.  71-92 

AA,  Lot  244 

4 

Gd.  71-206 

Al,  Lot  269 

5 

Gd.  71-30 

Bl.Lot  107 

6 

Gd.  71-348 

Al,  157 

7 

Gd.  71-51 

Bl,  st.  15E,  Area  15 

8 

Gd.  69-745 

CI,  Lot  26 

00 


5~3 


mn 


29     Godin,  Period  III  painted  pottery. 


10 


Figure  30  —  Catalogue 


Fig.  No.      Field  No.  Locus  Present  Location 

Tehran 

N.A. 

N.A. 

Tehran 

N.A. 

Tehran 

Tehran 

Tehran 

Tehran 

N.A. 

Tehran 

Tehran 

N.A. 

Tehran 


1 

Gd.  69-678 

R.  Bur.  2 

2 

Gd.  69-679 

R.  Bur.  2 

3 

Gd.  71-69 

Bl,Lot  159 

4 

Gd.  69-199 

AA1,  III:2A  fill 

5 

Gd.  69-464 

C3,  Bur.  1 

6 

Gd.  69-762 

Al,  111:4 

7 

Gd.  71-199 

Al,  Lot  192 

8 

Gd.  71-307 

AA,  Lot  296 

9 

Gd.  71-57 

AA.  Lot  244 

10 

Gd.  69-752 

C2,  st.  3 

11 

Gd.  71-118 

Bl.Lot  182 

12 

Gd.  71-110 

AA,  Lot  269 

13 

Gd.  71-352 

Al,  Lot  236 

14 

Gd.  71-271 

A2,  Lot  302 

102 


>0     Godin,  Period  III  painted  pottery. 


03 


Figure  31  —  Catalogue 


Fig.  No.      Field  No.  Locus  Present  Location 

Tehran 
N.A. 

N.A. 

Tehran 

Tehran 

Tehran 

Discarded 

Tehran 

Tehran 

Tehran 


1 

Gd.  71-25 

Bl,  st.  15D,  Area  8 

2 

Gd.  71-349 

AA,  Lot  282 

3 

Gd.  71-345 

AA,  Lot  244 

4 

Gd.  71-298 

Bl,  Lot  280 

5 

Gd.  69-707 

Bl,  Lot  89 

6 

Gd.  71-337 

Al,  Lot  400 

7 

Gd.  71-234 

Al,  Lot  324 

8 

Gd.  69-253 

AA2,  st.  11-12,  Area  9 

9 

Gd.  71-108 

AA,  Lot  244 

10 

Gd.  69-628 

C2,  st.  7,  Area  101 

04 


31      Godin,  Period  III  painted  pottery. 


05 


Figure  32  —  Catalogue 


Fig.  No.      Field  No.  Locus  Present  Location 

Tehran 
Tehran  ? 

N.A.  ? 
Tehran 


1 

Gd. 

17-346 

AA,  Lot  245 

2 

Gd. 

69-668 

R,  Bur.  1 

3 

Gd. 

69-662 

R,  Bur.  1 

4 

Gd. 

71-200 

Al,  Lot  316 

106 


0  5 

1  I     I    I     I    I 


10 
_lcm 


32     Godin,  Period  III  painted  pottery. 


07 


Figure  33  —  Catalogue 


Fig.  No.      Field  No.  Locus  Present  Location 


1 

Gd.  69-10 

C2,  st.  3,  Area  1A 

Tehran 

2 

Gd.  69-7 

C2,  st.  5,  Area  3 

Tehran 

3 

Gd.  69-702 

AA2/A2  balk,  Lot  7,  Area  21 

Tehran 

4 

Gd.  69-58 

C2,  st.  5,  Area  6 

Tehran 

5 

Gd.  69-261 

C2,  st.  6,  Area  2 

N.A. 

6 

Gd.  69-720 

Al,Lot  80 

N.A. 

108 


33     Godin,  Period  III  pottery  and  small  finds. 


1 09 


Figure  34  —  Catalogue 


Fig.  No.      Field  No.  Locus  Present  Location 


1 

Gd.  69-331 

AA9,  Bur.  1 

Tehran 

2 

Gd.  69-727 

Al/Bl  balk,  III: 2 A  floor 

N.A. 

3 

Gd.  71-304 

AOl,  Lot  19 

Tehran 

4 

Gd.  71-342 

Period  II  fill 

N.A. 

5 

Gd.  69-741 

Al,  Lot  102 

Tehran 

110 


I 


section 


u 


0  5 




10 


Icm 


34     Godin.  Period  III  small  finds. 


I     l 


Figure  35  —  Catalogue 


Fig.  No.  Field  No.  Locus  Present  Location 

1  Gd.  69-310  C2,  st.  6  N.A. 

2  Gd.  67-104  M,  loose  in  fill  N.A. 

3  Gd.  69-321  AM,  st.  8C/D,  Area  4  Tehran 

4  Gd.  69-59  B2,  st.  9B  N.A. 

5  Gd.  69-692  A2,  st.  9A/B  Tehran 

6  Gd.  69-48  AA1,  III:2A  fill  Tehran 

7  Gd.  69-323  AA1,  st.  8C/D,  Area  4  N.A. 

8  Gd.  69-322  AA 1 ,  st.  8C/ D,  Area  4  Tehran 

9  Gd.  69-603  A2,  Lot  172  Tehran 
10  Gd.  69-2  C2,  st.  3,  Area  1  Tehran 


112 


9 


6 


10 





10 


cm 


35     Godin.  Period  III  small  find- 


Figure  36  —  Catalogue 


Fig.  No.      Field  No.  Locus  Present  Location 

Tehran 

N.A. 

N.A. 

Tehran 

N.A. 

Tehran 


1 

Gd.  69-209 

B2,  Lot  80 

2 

Gd.  69-51 

CCl,st.  2,  Area  1 

3 

Gd.  69-218 

B2,  st.  8D 

4 

Gd.  69-233 

AA1,  st.  11,  Area  4 

5 

Gd.  69-314 

B3,  st.  3 

6 

Gd.  69-469 

Surface 

14 


6 


I    I 


5 

I    I    I 


10 


cm 


36     Godin.  Period  III  small  finds. 


H5 


37     Godin,  Period  II  structure:  the  fortified  manor  house. 


116 


GODIN  TEPE 

PERIOD  II 

E-W  ARCHITECTURAL  SECTION 


TfTaa 


l-^_ 

II 

i 

f 

w 


38     Godin.  East-West  Section  across  Period  II  structure. 
117 


GODIN  TEPE 

PERIOD  II 

N-S  ARCHITECTURAL   SECTION 


10 


39     Godin,  North-South  Section  across  Period  II  structure. 


I  19 


GODIN  TEPE 

PERIOD    II 


40     Godin,  schematic  plans  of  Stages    1,  2  and  3   in  the  history  of  the  Period  II 
structure. 


120 


GODIN  TEPE 

PERIOD    II 


41      Godin,    schematic   plans   of   Stages   4   and    5    in    the   history   of   the   Period    II 

structure. 


12 


GODIN  TEPE 

PERIOD  II 

ARCHITECTURAL    DETAIL 


10 

am 


^^f||pl 


*it> 


.449    */0D3 


g  Blocked  Passages. 


42     Godin,  detail  plan  of  stairway  and  ramp  area,  Period  II  structure. 


22 


GODIN  TEPE  1969 


PERIOD    n 
0  I         2 


43     Godin,  Period  II  structures,  Operation  AA9. 


I  23 


Figure  44  —  Catalogue 


Fig.  No.      Locus 


Description 


1 

AA3,  st.  2-3 

Area  4 

2 

Al,  st.  3, 

Area  1 

3 

AA1,  st.  2 

4 

BB2,  st.  2-3 

5 

AAl,st.  3 

6 

BB3,  st.  3B, 

Area  1 

7 

BBl,st.  3C, 

Area  2 

8 

B2,  st  2-4 

9 

DD3,  Lot  6 

10 

BBl,st.  2-3 

11 

CC3,  st.  3A, 

Area  5 

12 

DD2,  st.  3, 

Area  1 

13 

AA9,  st.  2 

14 

AAl,Pit  1 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 
Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 
Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 
Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 
Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Burnished. 
Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 
Red-slipped  common  ware.  Red.  Burnished. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 
Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 


24 


44     Godin,  Period  II  pottery. 


125 


Figure  45  —  Catalogue 


Fig.  No.      Locus 


Description 


1 

AA3,  st.  2-3, 

Area  9 

2 

CC2,  st.  2 

3 

DD3,  st.  2, 

Area  2 

4 

BB2,  st.  3a 

5 

DD3,  st.  2, 

Area  2 

6 

DD3,  st.  2, 

Area  2 

7 

BBl,st.  3, 

Area  4 

8 

BB3,  st.  3B, 

Area  4 

9 

DD3,  st.  2, 

Area  1 

10 

AA3,  st.  2-3, 

Area  4 

11 

AA3,  st.  2-3, 

Area  4 

12 

BB2,  st.  3A 

13 

CC2,  st.  2-3 

14 

CC2,  st.  2-3 

15 

CC2,  st.  2 

16 

Al,st.  3, 

Area  21 

17 

DD3,  Lot  6 

18 

DD3,  st.  2, 

Area  2 

19 

AA3,  st.  2, 

Area  4 

20 

DD3,  st.  2, 

Area  2 

21 

BB2.  st.  2-3 

22 

BB2,  st.  3A 

23 

DD3,  st.  2. 

Area  2 

24 

DD2,  st.  3. 

Area  1 

25 

AA3,  st.  2-3. 

Area  5 

26 

DD3,  st.  2. 

Area  2 

27 

Surface 

28 

EEl.st.  3 

29 

BB2.  st.  3A 

30 

Number 

missing 

31 

DD3.  st.  2. 

Area  2 

Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Dark  buff.  Burnished. 

Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Dark  buff.  Burnished. 
Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Burnished. 

Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Burnished. 
Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Polished. 

Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Burnished. 

Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Burnished. 

Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 

Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 

Red-slipped  fine  ware.  Red.  Burnished. 

Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Polished. 

Grey  fine  ware.  Black.  Polished. 
Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Pink-buff.  Burnished. 
Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Pink-buff.  Burnished. 
Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Burnished. 
Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Polished. 

Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Burnished. 
Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Polished. 

Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Burnished. 

Gd.  69-334.  N.A. 

Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Burnished. 
Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Burnished. 
Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Burnished. 

Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Burnished. 

Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 

Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Burnished. 

Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Polished. 
Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 
Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Burnished. 
Red-slipped  fine  ware.  Red.  Smoothed. 

Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Burnished. 


126 


> 

19 

0 

I    I    I 

5 

I     I    I 

10 
Jrm 

w 

I 

27 

V 

28 

I 

i     ; 

29 

\. 

L  J 

31 


45     Godin,  Period  IT  pottery. 


127 


Figure  46  —  Catalogue 


Fig.  No.      Locus 


Description 


1 

2 
3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 
18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 
26 

27 
28 
29 

30 


128 


BB3,  st.  3, 
Area  3 
BB2,  st.  3B 
BB3,  st.  2-3A, 
Area  1A 
DD3,  Lot  8, 
Area  1 
A2,  st.  4, 
Area  1 
DD3,  Lot  8, 
Area  1 
CC2,  st.  2-3, 
Area  1 
A,  st.  1 
CC2,  st.  2 
A  A3,  Lot  15 
EE1,  st.  3, 
Area  2 
Number 
missing 
BB3,  st.  3B, 
Area  4 
CC2,  st.  3, 
Area  2 
Al,st.  6, 
Area  1 
AA3,  st.  2-3, 
Area  4 
CC1,  st.  2 
Number 
missing 
AA3,  st.  2-3. 
Area  5 
DD3,  st.  2, 
Area  1 
BB2,  st.  2 
AA3,  st.  2-3, 
Area  4 
DD3,  st.  2, 
Area  2 
Number 
missing 
BB2,  st.  2-3 
AA3,  st.  3B, 
Area  4 
BB2,  st.  2-3 
BB2,  st.  3B 
AA2,  st.  3, 
Area  1 
A2.  st.  3, 
Area  2 


Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Burnished. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Pink-buff.  Smoothed. 
Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 

Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Pink-buff.  Burnished. 

Brown  fine  ware.  Light  brown.  Polished. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Horizontal  burnish  marks. 

Brown  fine  ware.  Light  brown.  Horizontal  burnished  marks. 


Pla 
Pla 
Pla 
Pla 

Pla 

Pla 

Pla 

Pla 

Pla 

Pia 
Pla 

Pla 

Pla 

Pla 

Pla 

Pla 
Pla 


n-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Burnished. 

n-buff  fine  ware.  Orange-buff.  Polished. 

n-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Horizontal  burnish  marks. 

n-buff  common  ware.  Cream-buff.  Matte. 

n-buff  common  ware.  Brown.  Horizontal  burnish  marks. 

n-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 

n-buff  common  ware.  Brown-buff.  Burnished. 

n-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Horizontal  burnish  marks. 

n-buff  common  ware.  Smoke  blackened.  Matte. 

n-buff  common  ware.  Cream-buff.  Matte, 
n-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 

n-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 

n-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 

n-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed, 
n-buff  common  ware.  Brown-grey.  Smoothed. 

n-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Horizontal  burnish  marks. 

n-buff  fine  ware.  Orange-buff.  Burnished. 


Red-slipped  common  ware.  Light  red.  Smoothed. 
Red-slipped  common  ware.  Red.  Burnished. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Burnished. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Brown.  Horizontal  burnish  marks. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 


\" 


16 


\ 


% 


I 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


T 


X 


\ 


\ 


0  5 

1  I    II    I     I 


10 
_lcm 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


7 


7 


46     Godin,  Period  II  pottery. 


129 


Figure  47  —  Catalogue 


Fig.  No.      Locus 


Description 


1 

B3,  st.  3 

2 

BBl,st.  2-3 

3 

BB2,  st.  2A 

4 

CC2,  st.  3, 

Area  2 

5 

CC2,  st.  3, 

Area  2 

6 

BB3,  st.  3, 

Area  3 

7 

BB2,  st.  3A 

8 

A  A3,  st.  3 

9 

Number 

missing 

10 

DD2.  Lot  4, 

Area  1 

11 

CC2,  st.  2 

12 

CO,  st.  2 

13 

DD,  Lot  36 

14 

DD,  Lot  36 

15 

Number 

missing 

16 

BB2,  st.  2-3 

17 

BB2,  st.  3B 

18 

BB2,  st.  3A 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Burnished. 
Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Burnished. 
Red-slipped  common  ware.  Light  red.  Burnished. 
Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Burnished. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff  Smoothed. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Greenish-buff.  Over  fired  and 

badly  blistered. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Matte. 

Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Reddish-buff.  Polished. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff  with  smoke-blackening. 

Matte. 

Red-slipped  fine  ware.  Red.  Burnished. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 
Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 
Plain-buff  common  fine  ware.  Reddish-buff.  Burnished. 
Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 
Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Matte. 
Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Reddish-buff.  Burnished. 
Plain-buff  common  ware.  Cream-buff.  Matte. 


130 


0  5 

I     I     I     I     I    I 


10 
Jcr 


47     Godin.  Period  II  pottery. 


131 


Figure  48  —  Catalogue 


Fig.  No.      Locus 


Description 


1 

AA3,  st.  3, 

Area  4 

2 

CC2,  st.  2-3, 

Area  1 

3 

CC2,  st.  3, 

Area  2 

4 

AA2,  st.  3 

5 

AA3,  st.  2-3, 

Area  4 

6 

AA3,  st.  2-3, 

Area  4 

7 

CC2,  st.  3, 

Area  2 

8 

BB1,  st.  3 

9 

AA3,  st.  2-3, 

Area  4 

10 

BB2,  st.  3B 

11 

BB2,  st.  3B 

12 

CC2,  st.  2 

13 

BB3,  st.  3B, 

Area  1 

14 

Al,  st.  3, 

Area  1 

15 

AAl,st.  2 

16 

BB2,  st.  3A 

17 

Number 

missing 

18 

DD2,  st.  2 

19 

AA3,  st.  2, 

Area  2 

20 

DD3,  Lot  36 

21 

Number 

missing 

22 

BB2,  st.  2-3 

23 

Number 

missing 

24 

Number 

missing 

25 

Number 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Burnished. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Tan.  Smoke  blackened. 

Burnished. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Cream-buff.  Burnished. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Greenish-cream.  Over-fired. 

Smoothed. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Tan.  Brown-black.  Smoothed. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Tan-buff.  Brown-black. 

Smoothed. 

Plain-buff  common.  Reddish-buff.  Burnished. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Tan-buff.  Smoothed. 
Plain-buff  common  ware.  Cream-buff.  Smoothed. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 
Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 
Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 
Plain-buff  common  ware.  Reddish-buff.  Smoothed. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Pink-buff.  Smoothed. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Cream  buff.  Smoothed. 
Plain-buff  common  ware.  Cream  buff.  Smoothed. 
Grey  fine  ware.  Grey-black.  Burnished. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Matte. 
Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 
Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Horizontal  burnish  marks. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 
Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 

Red-slipped  common  ware.  Light  red.  Burnished. 

Plain-buff  common  ware.  Tan-buff.  Smoothed. 


missing 


132 


0  5 


10 
Jem 


48     Godin,  Period  II  pottery. 


133 


Figure  49  —  Catalogue 


Fig.  No.      Locus  Description 


1  BB2,  st.  2-3  Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed.  Hole  in  lip. 

2  Al,  st.  3,  Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Burnished. 
Area  1 

3  Al,  st.  3,  Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 
Area  1 

4  AA1,  st.  1  Plain-buff  common  ware.  Tan-buff.  Smoothed. 

5  AA3,  st.  2-3,  Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 
Area  4 

6  AA3,  st.  2,  Plain-buff  common  ware.  Orange-buff.  Burnished. 
Area  2 

7  BB1,  st.  3B,  Outside  plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 
Area  2  Inside  red-slipped.  Reddish-buff.  Smoothed. 

8  AA3,  st.  2-3,  Plain-buff  common  ware.  Pink-buff.  Horizontal  burnish 
Area  4  marks. 

9  B2,  st.  3A  Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Burnished. 

10  Al,  st.  3,  Plain-buff  common  ware.  Buff.  Burnished. 
Area  1 

11  EE1,  st.  3,  Red-slipped  common  ware.  Red.  Smoothed. 
Area  2 

12  O,  Lot  1  Plain-buff  fine  ware.  Buff.  Smoothed. 


134 


^0< 


X 


? 


^ 


8 


iS\ 


9 


6 


\ 


10 


11 


12 


49     Godin.  Period  II  pottery. 


0  5 

1  I    I    I    I    I 


10 


35 


Figure  50  —  Catalogue 


Fig.  No.      Field  No.  Locus  Present  Location 

Tehran 
Tehran 

N.A. 

N.A. 

N.A. 

N.A. 

Tehran 

N.A. 

Tehran 

Tehran 


1 

Gd. 

69-196 

BB2,  st.  2,  Area  4 

2 

Gd. 

69-224 

DD3,  st.  2,  Area  2 

3 

Gd. 

69-462 

CCl,st.  4,  Area  3 

4 

Gd. 

69-258 

BB1/2  balk,  Lot  1 

5 

Gd. 

69-729 

BB3,  st.  3B,  Area  4 

6 

Gd. 

69-211 

AA9/10,  Lot  1 

7 

Gd. 

69-217 

BB2,  st.  2,  Area  3 

8 

Gd. 

71-285 

SE  corner,  Lot  2 

9 

Gd. 

69-634 

CC2,  Area  3  floor 

10 

Gd. 

69-264 

BB2,  st.  3B 

136 


1/ 

l\ 

l\ 
1 

J-l 

3t 

|    4 

• 
7 

I — I 


0  5 

I    I     I    I     I    I 


10 
Jem 


50     Godin.  Period  II  small  find! 


137 


KEY   TO  ARCHITECTURAL     PLANS 


I9KZ   Threshold  Stones 
Blocked  Door 
Window 


T 


I25E    Wa"  Foundation  Stones 
Mud/Mud  Brick  Wall 
Paving  Stones 

Other  Stones 

Bench 

Hearth 


I 


o  * 

9  Pot 

O  Hole 

£\*^  Later  Pit 

•  Post  Hole 


_  Stone  Steps 
14       Room  No. 


CgMX    Drain 
—  480         Elevation  (cm)  Below  Datum 

51     Godin,  Key  to  symbols,  architectural  plans. 


Down 
Grid  Lines 


KEY  TO  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  SECTIONS 


IflTOfllTurf 

\'"     \\x|  Very  loose  wash 
Fju^FJ  Loose  wash 
^=m^  Compact  wash 

Gravel 

Loose  wash  &  gravel 


t^&vl  Striated  occupational  trash 
Bricky  collapse 


]  Bricky  collapse  &  brick  bats 


'.;',     m 


■fiM  Sand 


|  Layered  wash-mud,  clay,  etc. 
Artificial  pack 
Hearth 
Heavy  burn 


ffijffij  Compact    ash 


tjV^Vl  Loose    ash 


SjSj Striated  ash 


E3IZ3JJ  Brick  wall 
Tauf  wall 
Stone 


52     Godin,  Key  to  symbols,  archaeological  sections. 

138 


Plates 


Plate  I:     Seh  Gabi,  Mound  B,  about  one  month  after  the  start  of  excavations.  Look- 
ing west. 


41 


Plate  IT:     Seh  Gabi,   Mounds  A  and  E  as  viewed  from  Mound  B  at  the  start  of 
excavations. 


142 


3G£ 


v=    *P*  - 


Plate  III:     Niche  and  quern  in  the  main  room,  Level  A,  Mound  B.  Looking  north. 


PkJp* 


Plate  IV:      Plastered  feature  west  of  wall  D  in  H   19,  Level  A,  Mound  H. 


43 


Plate  V:     Eastern  end  of  the  main  room,  Level  A,  Mound  B,  showing  the  plastered 
walls  and  the  sling  pellets  on  the  floor. 


■ 


\ 


Plate  VT:      Sling  pellets  and   red  deer  antlers  in  the  open  area  to  the  east  of  the 
building,  Level  A,  Mound  B. 


144 


Plate  VII:     Level  C,  Mound  B,  general  view.  The  curtain  wall  in  the  upper  right 
is  wall  N. 


t 

t'           J    ]£ 

-  '   ' 

JjQJfrjjII 

Plate  VIII:     Close  up  of  the  corrugated  surface  of  wall  N,  mound   B,   Level  C. 


45 


Plate  IX:      Mound  B,  G  20,  Burial  5,  covered. 


^^m0 


Plate  X:      Mound  B,  G  20,  Burial  5,  uncovered. 
146 


fcW   ;  '     i 

'.;.. 

■ 

;• 

: 

Plate  XI:      The  Godin  Citadel  mound  viewed  from  the  north  at  the  close  of  1971  field 
season. 


147 


Plate  XII:  Close-up  of  the  torso  of  Burial  1,  Operation  AA9  with  arrow  head  im- 
bedded in  the  spine. 


148 


Plate  XIII:     Level  III:2C,  entrance  corridor,  room  1,  with  stone  threshold  and  mud 
brick  benches. 


49 


Plate  XIV:  Level  IIT:2C,  the  hearth  and  bench  structure  in  room  2  viewed  from  above. 


150 


Plate  XV:     Level  III: 2 A,  clay  grain  storage  bins  in  room  24. 


15 


Plate  XVI:     Level  III:4A,  view  southeast  down  "Avenue  Road' 


152 


Plate    XVII:     Level   III:4A;   view   north   up   the   alleyway   leading   to   room    5   and 
courtyard  10. 


Plate  XVIII:      Level  IIL4A,  view  north  across  area  7.  rooms  H  and  9,  alleyway   15, 
courtyard   10  and  the  alleyway  cast  of  room  X. 


53 


yL  %s%t  * 


,J***i 


tf*  '-■ 


GODIN     69 

B2    ST13 

AREA  6      Bl 


Plate  XIX:     Level  III:4A,  skeleton  of  the  body  crushed  on  the  stone  pavement  in 
room  23. 


54 


Plate  XX:     Level  III:4A.  rectangular  bin  on  the  mud  brick  counter  in  room  29. 


155 


::$»**.■■:*•• 


*~  *  -*,  •»."* :. 


Plate  XXI:     Level  III:4A,  general  view  of  room  32  showing  the  elaborate  hearth 
against  the  north  wall. 


156 


Plate  XXII:     Level  III:5D,  view  from  the  northeast  toward  the  doorwav  of  room 


Plate  XXIII:     Period  II.  east  face  of  tower  13  cleared  hack  to  the  remaining  fragment 
of  the  original   fortification   wall   running  between  towers    13  and  5. 


57 


V      / 


4     * 


Plate  XXIV:      Period  II,  view  of  the  fortification  wa 
river  bed. 


ind  towers  4  and   17  from  the 


158 


Plate  XXV:     Period  II,  west  face  of  tower  17  showing  curving  socle. 


159 


r*.    - 


*I        \ 


GODIN    69 
DD  01 

TOWER 


■ W  M  " 


Plate  XXVI:     Period  II,  buttress  of  west  side  of  tower  17  showing  reconstruction  at 
a  slightly  different  alignment  from  the  original  structure. 


60 


; 


-  u  •  ■ 


. 


.. .     '     • 


V 


W: 


* 


*$ 


*>>  ♦  -     -         . 


'i^NBi 


«^ 


->, 


Plate  XXVII:  Period  II,  arrow  slot  in  the  north  fortification  wall.  NB:  two  lines  of 
replastering  indicating  the  depth  to  which  debris  had  been  allowed  to  accumulate 
against  the  wall  face. 


161 


Plate  XXVIII:     Period  II,  doorway  into  room  21  with  lintel  intact. 


62 


Plate  XXIX:     Period  II,  view  of  the  south  bank  of  magazines  (Stage  3)  from  the 
Citadel  mound  to  the  south. 


163 


Plate   XXX:     Period   II,   view    looking   northwest   across   the   massive   southeastern 
watch  tower,  rooms  36  and  37. 


64 


a 


Plate  XXXI:     Period  II,  stairway  in  area  43.  All  but  a  fragment  of  the  stairway 
(upper  left)   has  been  cleaned  down  to  the  original  first  plaster  surface. 


65 


Plate  XXXII:     Period  II,  "squatter  occupation,"  flimsy  stone  foundation  of  wall  in 
area  45. 


66 


Plate  XXXIII:     Period  II.  "squatter  occupation,"  hearth  in  area  44. 


167 


7124 


Iffc 


mm 


war 


*, '  ■< 


ISBN  0-88854-019- 


library 

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